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Popular Points of Interest in and near Göttingen
Plesse Castle is situated to the north of Göttingen in Germany, close to the village of Bovenden.
The castle was transferred in 1015 from the private estate of Meinwerk, bishop of Paderborn to the city of Paderborn. Since 1150 it is the seat of the noble lords of Plesse, who named themselves for the castle. Holy Roman emperor Henry VI traded Plesse Castle in 1192 for Desenberg Castle close to Warburg in Westphalia, but the trade was already reverted in 1195. In 1447 the lords of Plesse transferred their possession of Plesse Castle to the Landgrave Ludwig of Hesse and in return received it as a fiefdom. The explanation for it lies in the fragmentation of the dukedom of Brunswick-Göttingen. The leading noble families could not avoid being drawn into the ensuing conflicts. They therefore sought protection from a powerful liege lord. They found this protection and backup with another ruler, who was Ludwig of Hesse.
In 1536 the protestant reformation was introduced to the dominion of Plesse, which also comprised the surrounding villages. The house of Plesse became extinct with the death of Dietrich IV of Plesse in 1571. Landgrave William IV of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) then took possession of the dominion of Plesse, as this was his right as liege lord. Moritz of Hesse-Kassel converted the people of the Plesse dominion to the reformed creed in 1614. Between 1623 and 1624 he and his family took refuge in the castle various times. After a siege in 1627 during the Thirty Years' War the castle and the dominion of Plesse were ceded temporarily to the landgrave George II of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1660 the castle was abandoned finally and afterwards served as a quarry for the residents of the surrounding villages.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe visited the castle in 1801. Subsequently to French occupation in 1807 the dominion became the Canton Bovenden in the Kingdom of Westphalia. After the collapse of Westphalia in 1813 the now Electorate of Hesse-Kassel retook control of the dominion of Plesse. In a barter between Prussia, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel the dominion of Plesse became part of Hanover on May 1, 1817. Starting in 1821 first attempts to restore parts of the castle were undertaken, and between 1853 and 1864, on initiative of the ruling family of Hanover, it came to a complete restoration of the castle. The earlier affiliation of Plesse to Hesse can still be seen even today. The villages of the former dominion of Plesse still belong not to the Evangelical Lutheran State Church of Hanover, but belong to the Evangelical Reformed Church.
Solling-Vogler Nature Park
The Solling-Vogler Nature Park (German: Naturpark Solling-Vogler) is a nature park in South Lower Saxony in Germany. It has an area of 52,000 hectares (200 sq mi) and was established in 1966.
The nature park includes the hill ranges of the Solling and the Vogler but also the Burgberg which lies east of Weser valley between the two upland regions. It is looked after by the Zweckverband Naturpark Solling-Vogler, whose sponsors are the districts of Holzminden and Northeim and the state of Lower Saxony.
[ source: Museum website ]
Göttingen City Museum
Located in the city's only Renaissance palacem the Göttingen City Museum (Städtisches Museum Göttingen) has permanent and temporary exhibitions of historical and artistic materials.
Hours: Tuesday - Friday 10am - 5pm. Saturday and Sunday 11am - 5pm.
Admission: Adults 2 €, Concessions 1 €.
Old Botanical Garden (Alte Botanische Garten) at the University of Göttingen
The Old Botanical Garden is a historic botanical garden maintained by the University of Göttingen. It is located in the city center in Göttingen and is open daily. The garden was established in 1736 by Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) and gradually extended via adjacent plots within and without the city wall. By 1806 the garden had a tropical greenhouse, orangery, and cycad house; to these were added in 1830 an Araceae greenhouse, and again in 1857 a new orangery (converted in 1910 to a fern house). Although the garden's collection of tropical plants was destroyed in the World War II, it was replenished postwar and augmented by a major collection of wild plants from central Europe. In 1967, as the university's natural science faculty began its relocation to a site north of the city center, two new botanical gardens were there established (the Neuer Botanischer Garten der Universität Göttingen and the Forstbotanischer Garten und Arboretum), but the old garden continues.
Today the garden contains 17,500 accessions representing about 14,000 species, and forms one of the largest and most significant scientific collections of plants in Germany.
Forstbotanischer Garten and Arboretum at Göttingen University
The Forstbotanischer Garten and Pflanzengeographisches Arboretum, often called the Forstbotanischer Garten und Arboretum, is a 40 hectares (99 acres) arboretum and botanical garden maintained by the University of Göttingen. It is adjacent to the New Botanical Garden (Neuer Botanischer Garten der Universität Göttingen), and open to the public daily.
The arboretum dates to 1870 when it was created as a forestry school by the Hannoversch Münden Faculty of Forestry. Over the years it fell into disuse but was revived and substantially modified in 1970 when the forestry education and research facilities were transferred to Göttingen. At that time today's garden and arboretum were begun, with first plantings taking place in Autumn 1970 in the Japan section.
Today the garden and arboretum contain over 2000 species on the forestry school campus. Its major sections include geographic collections of trees from China, Japan, Korea, North America, and the Caucasus, which together represent about 45 genera with 800 species, subspecies, and varieties; the forest botanical garden (7 hectares) which contains about 140 plant genera with about 1100 wild species, subspecies, and varieties; and a tertiary forest area.
[ source: Flickr ]
European Bread Museum
The European Bread Museum in Ebergötzen is a specialist museum and houses the cultural-historical collection, "From Grain to Bread" from the over 8,000-year history and development of agriculture, grain processing and bread. Beginning with the first farmers, the band ceramists from around 5500 BC (Lehmkuppelofen) on Bronze and Iron Age, the Middle Ages and modern times are ultimately exhibits have been collected.
The museum presents its permanent exhibition in the stately former forestry office Spätbarockbau Radolfshausen. The exhibition consists of various topics, such as the history of bread, cereals and flour milling, bread in religion, bread in the arts, culture and customs, and world food and hunger.
Alongside the exhibition there on the large grounds of the corresponding open-air museum after several mills, gardens where cereals are also grown, and three recreated historical ovens.
SS. Peter and Paul's Church, Göttingen
The Paulinerkirche in the historic city center of Göttingen was completed as a minster in 1304. Today it serves as a convention and exposition centre for the Göttingen State and University Library.
In 1294 the Dominican Order was permitted to settle in Göttingen and started to build a monastery in the western part of the city center. The minster was constructed in the style of a gothic hall church typical for the order. Upon completion of the minster the Paulinerkirche became the most ancient gothic hall church in the historic center of Göttingen.
It was dedicated in 1331 to the apostles Peter and Paul. This is the origin of the name of the church. Since 1341 it has been the repository of important relics of saint Thomas Aquinas. These drew great numbers of pilgrims to Thomasmass every year and provided the church with a good reputation even in distant places.
Twelve years after Martin Luther's publication of the 95 Theses, Reformation took hold in Göttingen in 1529. This resulted in hardships for the black friars in the subsequent years. The city magistrate in the beginning did not have full administrative control over the parish churches. These were under the authority of duke Erich I of Brunswick-Lüneburg, prince of Calenberg-Göttingen. He stayed faithful to the old beliefs and did not want to permit Lutheran sermons in his churches. The city magistrate therefore decided the mendicant order's masses would be delivered in the two churches. The largest one of these was the Paulinerkirche, so most of these masses were delivered primarily here. The first regular mass was given by reverend Friedrich Hüventhal against the wishes of the monks on October 24, 1529. Also, in this place the first children in Göttingen were baptized to the Lutheran faith.
Old Botanical Garden of Göttingen University
The Old Botanical Garden of Göttingen University (German: Alte Botanische Garten der Universität Göttingen or Alte Botanische Garten Göttingen), with an area of 4.5 hectares, is an historic botanical garden maintained by the University of Göttingen. It is located in the Altstadt at Untere Karspüle 1, adjacent to the city wall, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany, and open daily.
The garden was established in 1736 by Albrecht von Haller (1708-1777) as a hortus medicus, and gradually extended via adjacent plots within and without the city wall. By 1806 the garden had a tropical greenhouse, orangery, and cycad house; to these were added in 1830 an Araceae greenhouse, and again in 1857 a new orangery (converted in 1910 to a fern house). Although the garden's collection of tropical plants was destroyed in the World War II, it was replenished postwar and augmented by a major collection of wild plants from central Europe. In 1967, as the university's natural science faculty began its relocation to a site north of the city center, two new botanical gardens were there established (the Neuer Botanischer Garten der Universität Göttingen and the Forstbotanischer Garten und Arboretum), but the old garden continues. In one of the most recent changes, its systematic garden was converted from 2003-2007 from a century-old taxonomic structure to one reflecting contemporary molecular genetics.
Today the garden contains 17,500 accessions representing about 14,000 species, and forms one of the largest and most significant scientific collections of plants in Germany. It contains major collections of bromeliads (about 1,500 species and varieties, including 500 species of Tillandsia alone), cacti (approximately 1,500 species), ferns (about 550 species, including some of the rarest ferns of Central Europe), marsh and aquatic plants (ca. 300 species), and mosses (100 species). Its major areas include a systemic garden (1,200 species), arboretum, pond, rockery, useful and medicinal plant garden, and a weed collection. Eight greenhouses contain bromeliads, orchids, carnivorous plants, plants of the tropical rain forest, tropical water plants, cycads, aroids, cacti and other succulent plants, and ferns. Three tunnels under the city wall link the garden's inner and outer sections.
Neuer Botanischer Garten der Universität Göttingen
The Neuer Botanischer Garten der Universität Göttingen (36 hectares), also known as the Experimenteller Botanischer Garten, is a research botanical garden maintained by the University of Göttingen. It is located immediately adjacent to the university's Forstbotanischer Garten und Arboretum at Grisebachstraße 1, Göttingen, Lower Saxony, Germany, and open daily without charge.
The garden was established by Prof. Heinz Ellenberg (1913–1997) in 1967 as an experimental facility to augment the historic Alte Botanische Garten der Universität Göttingen. In 2009 its name was changed to the Experimenteller Botanischer Garten.
The garden contains special collections of Centaurea and related genera, native flora of Central Europe, holarctic forest vegetation, endangered wild plants, and rare weeds, as well as an alpine garden (5000 m²), wild rose collection, and pond (400 m²) with aquatic and swamp plants.
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Göttingen is a college town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Göttingen. The Leine river runs through the town. In 2006 the population was 129,686.
The origins of Göttingen lay in a village called Gutingi. This village was first mentioned in a document in 953. The city was founded between 1150 and 1200 to the northwest of this village and adopted its name. In medieval times the city was a member of the Hanseatic League and hence a wealthy town.
Today Göttingen is famous for its old university (Georgia Augusta, or "Georg-August-Universität"), which was founded in 1737 and became the most visited university of Europe. In 1837 seven professors protested against the absolute sovereignty of the kings of Hanover; they lost their offices, but became known as the "Göttingen Seven". They include some well-known celebrities: the Brothers Grimm, Heinrich Ewald, Wilhelm Weber and Georg Gervinus. Also, German chancellors Otto von Bismarck and Gerhard Schröder went to law school at the Göttingen university. Karl Barth had his first professorship here. Some of the most famous mathematicians in history, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Bernhard Riemann and David Hilbert were professors at Göttingen.
Like other university towns, Göttingen has developed its own folklore. On the day of their doctorate, postgraduate students are drawn in handcarts from the Great Hall to the Gänseliesel-Fountain in front of the Old Town Hall. There they have to climb the fountain and kiss the statue of the Gänseliesel (Goose girl). This practice is actually forbidden by law, but the law is not at all enforced. She is considered to be the most-kissed girl in the world. The impressive lion statues which stand nearby at the steps of the town hall are celebrated in Stephen Clackson's Märchen
Die Traurigen Löwen von Göttingen set eight years after the foundation of the University.
Nearly untouched by Allied bombing in World War II (the informal understanding during the war was that Germany wouldn't bomb Cambridge and Oxford and the Allies wouldn't bomb Heidelberg (Heidelberg vacation rentals | Heidelberg travel guide) and Göttingen), the inner city of Göttingen is now an attractive place to live with many shops, cafes and bars. For this reason, many university students live in the inner city and give Göttingen a young face. In 2003, 45% of the inner city population was only between 18 and 30 years of age.
Economically, Göttingen is noted for its production of optical and fine mechanical machinery, including the light microscopy division of Carl Zeiss, Inc. - the region around Göttingen advertises itself as
Measurement Valley. Unemployment in Göttingen was at 12.6% (2003).
The city's railway station to the west of the city center is on Germany's main north-south railway.
Göttingen has two professional basketball teams; both the men's and women's teams play in the Basketball-Bundesliga. For the 2007/2008 season both teams will play in the 1st division.
Göttingen has two professional theaters, Deutsches Theater in Göttingen and Junges Theater. In addition, there is ThOP (Theater im OP Göttingen ), a stage that mostly presents student productions.
Museums, collections, exhibitions
- The Göttingen City Museum (Städtisches Museum Göttingen) has permanent and temporary exhibitions of historical and artistic materials.
- The Ethnographic Collection of the University includes an internationally significant South Seas exhibition (Cook/Forster collection) and mostly 19th-century materials from the Arctic polar region (Baron von Asch collection) as well as major displays on Africa as its highlights.
- The Old City Hall (Altes Rathaus) has temporary art shows of local, regional, and international artists.
- The Paulinerkirche in the Historical University Library Building has various temporary exhibitions, usually of a historic nature.
The university has a number of significant museums and collections.
Göttingen is home to four intercultural gardens and the German Association of International Gardens (Internationale Gärten e.V.).
[ source: Wikipedia ]
More about the History of Göttingen
The origins of Göttingen can be traced back to a village named Gutingi to the immediate south-east of the eventual city. The name of the village probably derives from a small creek, called the Gote, that once flowed through it. Since the ending -ing denoted "living by", the name can be understood as "along the Gote".
The original Welf residency in the town consisted of a farm building and stables of the Welf dukes, which occupied the oldest part of the city fortifications built prior to 1250 AD. In its early days, Göttingen got involved in the conflicts of the Welfs with their enemies. The initial conflicts in the first decades of the 13th century benefited the burghers of Göttingen, which could use the political and military situation to be courted by various parties, and hence forcing the Welf town lords to certain compromises with the town. In a document from 1232 AD, Duke Otto the Child gave the citizens of Göttingen the same rights they held at the time of his uncles Otto IV and Henry the Elder of Brunswick. These included privileges concerning self-governance of the town, protection of traders, and the facilitation of trade.
After World War II, the city and district of Göttingen joined the administrative district (Regierungsbezirk) of Hildesheim. In a reform in 1973 the district of Göttingen was enlarged by incorporating the dissolved districts of Duderstadt and Hannoversch Münden.
Göttingen is a college town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Göttingen. The Leine river runs through the town. In 2006 the population was 129,686.
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