Have a question about Hamburg? Ask a local resident for special Hamburg insider tips ...
In case you have a specific question for Hamburg or would like a Hamburg insider tip from one of our local property owners and Hamburg experts. Simply add your question and enter your email address. You will typically receive responses from us soon, in many cases within less than 24 hours! Please note: We do not share your email address with with anyone. Responses will solely be sent from us.
Previously asked Hamburg questions and answers:
Here is a list of Hamburg questions that were already answered by our local residents and property owners. Please browse through them. In case you still have a question that is not answered here please use the form above.
- Cultural & History
- Don't do this
- Evening - Going out
- Getting Around
- Local Events
- Local Food Specialties
- Local Travel Tips
- Points of Interest
- Sports & Leisure
Where can one get a great breakfast in the morning?
Are there any cultural highlights, museums?"What is the oldest restaurant in Hamburg? Thank you." (posted 02/23/2016)
Ideas for 2-3 activities and daytrips?
Good restaurants for dinner?
Typical tourist activities or places that one should NOT do, as they are not worthwhile doing.
Things can do to make it a fun and memorable evening?"Hello! I am a 21 year old student moving to Hamburg for the year to work as an au pair. I am moving from Montreal, where I have lived for the past 4 years. I love city life and I would love to hear recommendations on shops, restaurants, and bars that are great for young people. " (posted 04/08/2014)
How to get around and find best means of local transportation?"How do I get from the cruise ship to Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe on public transport please? How do I get from the cruise terminal to the airport on public transport please?" (posted 04/30/2014)
Where to find good quality groceries?"I am going to be staying near the main train station in central Hamburg, where might I be able to buy soya milk please?" (posted 07/11/2014)
Are there any special local events?
Are there any local food specialties one should try out?
What makes this destination special? Why should one spend some time here during vacation?"How to book a guided tour visiting hamburg town hall for big group ? Admission ?" (posted 04/19/2015)
Is there a good local deli or restaurant with lunch menu?
Are there any points of interest or local attractions?
What are good places to go for shopping?
Any sporting activites and recommendations to stay active?
Questions around the weather, different seasons, ...
Popular Points of Interest in and near Hamburg
Wadden Sea National Parks
These national parks are divided from each other for administrative reasons, but they form a single ecological entity. The purpose of the national parks is the protection of the Wadden Sea ecoregion. The national parks form part of the Wadden Sea UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hamburg
The Archdiocese of Hamburg (Lat. Archidioecesis Hamburgensis; Ger. Erzbistum Hamburg) is a diocese in the north of Germany and covers the Federal States of Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein as well as the Mecklenburgian part of the Federal State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In terms of surface area it is the largest in Germany. It is characterized by its situation as a diocese in the Diaspora. Seat of the archbishop is the New St. Mary's Cathedral in Sankt Georg, Hamburg.
In 831 Hamburg was elevated to an archbishopric by Pope Gregory IV and in 834 the Benedictine monk Ansgar was elected to be the first archbishop. After the looting of Hamburg by Vikings in 845 the archbishopric of Hamburg was united with the bishopric of Bremen, and the archbishop's seat moved to Bremen. Still, there was a cathedral chapter in Hamburg with several special rights, which started to build St. Mary's Cathedral. The incumbents of the Hamburg-Bremen see are usually titled Archbishop of Hamburg and Bishop of Bremen between 848 and 1072, however, some later archbishops continued the tradition of naming both dioceses until 1258. During Reformation the bishopric underwent steady deterioration and finally, with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, it ceased to exist.
By the apostolic constitution Omnium Christifidelium of Pope John Paul II, of October 24, 1994 coming into effect on January 7, 1995, the archdiocese of Hamburg was erected again. Today it consists of territory that once belonged to the dioceses of Osnabrück, and Hildesheim, namely the Free and Hanse-City of Hamburg, the State of Schleswig-Holstein and the half-State of Mecklenburg. The cathedral and the vicar-general are seated in the city-quarter Sankt Georg which is located in the borough of Hamburg-Central.
Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park
The Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park (German: Nationalpark Niedersächsisches Wattenmeer) was established in 1986 and embraces the East Frisian Islands, mudflats and salt marshes between the Bay of Dollart on the border with the Netherlands in the west and Cuxhaven as far as the Outer Elbe shipping channel in the east. The national park has an area of about 345,800 hectares (1,335 sq mi). The National Park organisation is located in Wilhelmshaven. Since June 2009 the Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea and the Dutch Wadden Sea.
The Hamburger Dom is a large funfair held in Hamburg, at Heiligengeistfeld fair ground, in Northern Germany. With three fairs (spring, summer and winter) per year it is the biggest and the longest fair throughout Germany. It attracts approximately ten million visitors annually. This Volksfest (lit. peoples fair) is a funfair. It is located in the center of Hamburg on the Heiligengeistfeld and puts on an impressive firework display, that can be seen across the city, every Friday that it runs at 22:30 Hrs.
German National Library of Economics
The German National Library of Economics (German: Deutsche Zentralbibliothek für Wirtschaftswissenschaften), abbreviated ZBW, is the world's largest library for economics. It also bears the suffix "Leibniz Information Centre for Economics" and is part of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community (WGL). The headquarters of the ZBL is in Kiel, Germany with additional offices in Hamburg.
The ZBW is jointly funded by the German Federal Government and States of Germany. Its mission is to procure, index, archive and provide literature on economics and business fields to researchers and the general public. It is a depositary library of the World Trade Organization and maintains a European Union Documentation Centre at both locations. It also collects all official publications of the United Nations, OECD, the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.
UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning
The UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (formerly: UNESCO Institute for Education) is one of six educational institutes of UNESCO. It is a non-profit international research, training, information, documentation and publishing centre on literacy, non-formal education, adult and lifelong learning. By linking educational research, policy and practice in these areas UIL makes a special contribution in enhancing access to learning, and improving the environment and quality of learning for all in all regions of the world.
UIL provides services in literacy, non-formal education, adult and lifelong learning to UNESCO's Member States, NGOs and grassroots and community organizations, but also to partners in civil society and the private sector. In doing so, the Institute works in close collaboration with its Paris headquarters, with UNESCO field offices in different countries, with sister institutes and with national and international partners.
UIL is based in Hamburg, Germany. The Senate (government) of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg provides the Institute with premises close to the University, in a house protected as a historic monument. In February 2007 a country agreement was signed which defines the terms and conditions under which the UIL is hosted by the Federal Republic of Germany.
St. Michaelis Church
The landmark of Hamburg is better known as the
Michel. The Michel is one of the most important churches in the North of Germany and the most famous church in Hamburg. It was built between 1648-61 in the baroque architectural style. The Michel is the main church in the new town (Neustadt) of Hamburg. It is dedicated to the archangel Michael. The 132m-high baroque spire covered with copper is a prominent feature of Hamburg’s skyline and has always been a landmark for ships sailing up the river Elbe.
Hours: open daily April - October from 9am - 8pm and from November - March from 10am - 5pm.
The Deichtorhallen in Hamburg, Germany, is one of Europe's largest art centers for contemporary art and photography. The two historical buildings dating from 1911-13 are iconic in style, with their open steel-and-glass structures. Their architecture creates a backdrop for spectacular major international exhibitions. Since 2011, the two buildings at the interface of Hamburg's Kunstmeile and Hafencity have been supplemented by a satellite in Hamburg's Harburg district, the Sammlung Falckenberg.
Between 1911 und 1914, the Deichtorhallen ("the levee gate halls") were built as market halls on the grounds of the former Berliner Bahnhof railway station, Hamburg's counterpart to Berlin's "Hamburger Bahnhof". They constitute one of the few surviving examples of industrial architecture from the transitional period between Art Nouveau and 20th-century styles. The two halls are open steel structures, the northern hall is a longitudinal edifice boasting three naves and a 3,800 sq.m. footprint; the southern hall (1,800 sq.m.) is a building with a lantern roof. Rupprecht Matthies created two "language cylinders" visitors can walk through for Deichtorplatz - which is also home to a Richard Serra sculpture. In the northern hall, there is a line of neon writing by Mario Merz and a "Blue Disc" by Imi Knoebel.
The Körber foundation gifted the restored Deichtorhallen to the City of Hamburg. In 1989, they were assigned to a limited liability company: Deichtorhallen-Ausstellungs GmbH. On Nov. 9, 1989 Deichtorhallen's international art exhibition program opened with the show "Einleuchten", curated by Harald Szeemann. Deichtorhallen Hamburg has emerged as an exhibition center for photography and contemporary art with three pillars of activities, three institutions under the single Deichtorhallen brand. Since 2009, Dr. Dirk Luckow has been Artistic Director of Deichtorhallen Hamburg.
Art Museum (Kunsthallle)
The Hamburger Kunsthalle houses one of the most important art collections in Germany. It focuses on Hamburger painters of the 14th century, paintings of Dutch and Flemish artists of the 16th and 17th century, French and German paintings of the 19th century, and modern art. It consists of three architecturally intriguing, linked buildings, located in the city center near central station and the Binnenalster lake. Highlights include masterpieces by Rembrandt, Caspar David Friedrich, and Edvard Munch.
Hours: Tuesdays to Sundays 10am - 6pm, Thursdays 10am - 9pm, Closed Mondays.
Admission: Adult entry 8.50 €, Concessions 5 €, Children under 18 free.
Ernst Barlach House
The Ernst Barlach House – Hermann F. Reemtsma Foundation (German: Ernst-Barlach-Haus – Stiftung Hermann F. Reemtsma) is an art museum in Hamburg, Germany, devoted to the Expressionist artist Ernst Barlach.
The museum was founded by the industrialist Hermann F. Reemtsma, and is located in the Jenischpark in the west of the city. The squat, functionalist museum building was begun in 1961 by the Hamburg architect Werner Kallmorgen, finished in 1962 after Reemtsma's death, and extended in 1996 with new rooms for temporary exhibitions. There is also a library containing literature on Barlach and his era.
Reemtsma had begun to build a collection of Barlach's works in the mid-1930s, after first meeting the multi-talented draughtsman, graphic artist, sculptor and dramatist. Towards the end of the decade he sought to defend this collection as securely as possible against Fascist vandalism, after Barlach's cenotaphs in Kiel (Holy Ghost Church) and Güstrow (cathedral) were destroyed, 381 of his works were seized, and Barlach was classified as a "degenerate" artist and banned from working or being exhibited.
Town Hall (Rathaus)
The Hamburg Rathaus is located in the Altstadt quarter in the center of Hamburg, near the lake Binnenalster and the central station. Constructed from 1886 to 1897, the city hall still houses its original governmental functions with the office of the First Mayor of Hamburg and the meeting rooms for Hamburg's parliament and senate (the city's executive).
The city hall took center stage at many historical moments for Hamburg. On May 3, 1945 the Nazi commander in chief General Woltz surrendered Hamburg to the British Army. Heads of state visited Hamburg and its city hall, among them Emperor Haile Selassie I, the Shahanshah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi in 1955, and in 1965 Queen Elizabeth II.
On the outside the architectural style is neo-renaissance, which is abandoned inside for several historical elements. The city hall has a total area of 17,000 m2 (182,986 sq ft), not including the restaurant Ratsweinkeller of 2,900 m2 (31,215 sq ft). The tower is 112 metres (367 ft) high with 436 steps. The entire building has 647 rooms, six rooms more than Buckingham Palace. In 1971 a room in the tower was only discovered accidentally during a search for a document fallen behind a filing cabinet. So there is a probability that there are even more rooms than the currently counted 647 rooms.
Guided tours through City Hall (time: approx. 40 minutes) are conducted on the following days:
- Monday - Thursday: 10 a.m. – 3 p.m. German tours take place every 30 minutes on the half and on the full hour. English or French tours on demand every hour from 10.15 a.m. until 3.15 p.m.
- Friday: 10 a.m. – 1 p.m. German tours take place every 30 minutes on the half and on the full hour. English or French tours on demand every hour from 10.15 a.m. until 1.15 p.m.
- Saturday: 10 a.m. – 5 p.m. German tours take place every 30 minutes on the half and on the full hour. English or French tours on demand every hour from 10.15 a.m. until 5.15 p.m.
- Sunday: 10 a.m. – 4 p.m. German tours take place every 30 minutes on the half and on the full hour. English or French tours on demand every hour from 10.15 a.m. until 4.15 p.m.
Admission: Adults: 3 €, Children under 14 years: ,50 €
Erotic Art Museum (Hamburg)
The Erotic Art Museum was on the Reeperbahn red-light district in Hamburg, Germany and was dedicated erotic art.
The museum closed in fall 2007.
Jenisch House (Jenisch-Haus) is a country house in Hamburg built in the 19th century and an example of Hanseatic lifestyle and neoclassical architecture. As of 2008, Jenisch House is the home of the Museum für Kunst und Kultur an der Elbe.
The house was built by Franz Forsmann and Karl Schinkel for Martin Johann Jenisch between 1831 and 1834. Jenisch used it as a country house.
Fish Market (Fischmarkt)
The bustling atmosphere of the 300-year old Hamburg Fishmarkt is unique. Fresh seafood, exotic fruits and nuts, flowers and teas from all over the world – the market is a must for every foodie. The open-air market, right next to the historic fish auction hall and along the Elbe river, is open only on Sundays between 5am and 9:30 am (open from 7am - 9:30am November 15 - March 15).
Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg
The Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe (Museum of Arts and Crafts) is a museum of fine, applied and decorative arts in Hamburg, Germany. It is located centrally, near the Hauptbahnhof.
The museum was founded in 1874, following the models of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, the Museum für angewandte Kunst in Vienna, and the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin. In 1877 it moved to its current premises, a building on the Steintorplatz built from 1873–75.
Between 1919 and 1933, under the direction of Max Sauerlandt, the museum acquired a large collection of Expressionist works. After 1933, the Nazi campaign against "degenerate art" resulted in the loss of numerous contemporary works, as well as the forced departure of Sauerlandt. The building was partly destroyed by bombs in 1943; the rebuilding was finished in 1959.
Toy Train Exhibition (Miniatur Wunderland)
The largest model railway in the world and one of the most successful permanent exhibitions in Northern Germany. As of January 2008, the railway consisted of 11,000 meters (36,089 ft) of track in H0 scale, divided into five sections: Southern Germany, Hamburg and the coast, America, Scandinavia and Switzerland. By 2014 the exhibit is due to double the number of sections to ten; the next section covering an airport, is due to open in 2010. The exhibit includes 900 trains made up of 12,000 carriages; 300,000 lights, 200,000 trees and 200,000 human figures. The creators promise that the railroad will evenutally include small models of France, Italy and the UK.
Hours: Open 365 days a year; daily 9:30am - 6pm; Tuesdays 9:30am - 9pm; Saturdays 8:00am - 9pm; Sundays and Public Holidays 8:30am - 8pm.
Admission: Adults 10 € Concessions 8 € Children under 16 5 € Children under 3ft. tall are free; a Family Card is 28 €.
Special Note: Wait times to get into Miniatur Wunderland can be long on certain days; the operators suggest checking the website for current wait time information, and encourage pre-purchasing tickets there.
The Afghan Museum (German: Afghanisches Museum) is private museum of culture and cultural history of Afghanistan, situated in the historic and picturesque Speicherstadt (warehouse district) of Hamburg, Germany. The museum's mandate is to bring the authentic and traditional aspects of Afghan culture to life.
This private museum was opened in March 1998 by lawyer and businessman Nek Mohamad Pirzad, his family and friends.
BallinStadt - The Immigration Museum of Hamburg
Between 1850 and 1939, more than 5 million people from all over Europe emigrated from Hamburg to the New World. The museum complex
Ballinstadtrecreates this life-changing journey on historic grounds; see the original emigration halls, and an extensive interactive exhibition (in English and German). You can even trace back the journey of your own family by studying the original passenger lists and the largest genealogical database in the world.
Hours: Open every day from 10am - 6pm.
Admission: Adults 12 € Concessions 10 € Children 7 € Family Card 25 €.
Wellingsbüttel Manor (German: Rittergut Wellingsbüttel, since Danish times: Kanzleigut Wellingsbüttel) is a former manor with a baroque manor house (German: Herrenhaus) in Hamburg, Germany, which once enjoyed imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit). Wellingsbüttel was documented for the first time on 10 October 1296. Since 1937 it has formed part of the suburbs of Hamburg as the heart of the quarter of the same name, Wellingsbüttel, in the borough of Wandsbek. The owners of Wellingsbüttel Manor from the beginning of the 15th until the early 19th century were consecutively the Archbishops of Bremen, Heinrich Rantzau, Dietrich von Reinking, the Barons von Kurtzrock, Frederick VI of Denmark, Hercules Roß, the Jauch family, Cäcilie Behrens and Otto Jonathan Hübbe. In the early 19th century it was the residence and place of death of His Serene Highness Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, the penultimate duke, who was an ancestor inter alia of the present-day British royal family. Wellingsbüttel Manor was elevated to the status of a Danish "chancellery manor" (Kanzleigut). It was then acquired by Grand Burgher of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg Johann Christian Jauch junior (1802–1880), becoming a country estate of the Jauch family.The manor house is together with Jenisch House (Jenisch-Haus) one of Hamburg's best conserved examples of the Hanseatic lifestyle in the 19th century and jointly with the manor gatehouse a listed historical monument. The estate is located on the banks of the Alster River in the middle of the Alster valley (Alstertal) nature reserve.
Archäologisches Museum Hamburg
The Archäologisches Museum Hamburg (Archaeological Museum of Hamburg; formerly named the Helms-Museum) is an archaeological museum in the Harburg borough of Hamburg, Germany. It houses the archaeological finds of the city of Hamburg and the neighbouring counties to the south of the city. It focuses on northern German prehistory and early history as well as the history of the former city of Harburg. The museum is also home to the cultural heritage landmarks commission of the city of Hamburg and the adjacent district of Harburg in Lower-Saxony and thus supervises all archaeological undertakings in the region.
The museum has two major exhibition spaces. The future City Museum of Harburg, temporary exhibitions, the library, offices and small storage facilities are located in the main building, which is shared with the Harburger Theater at Museumsplatz 2. The permanent archaeological exhibition and education facilities are located nearby, at Harburger Rathausplatz 5. In addition, the Museum maintains as external branches the exhibition area of the 12th-century Bischofsturm (Bishop's Tower) in Hamburg's old town, the Fischbeker Heide archaeological trail at Neugraben-Fischbek and the 8th-century hillfort of Hollenstedt.
Cap San Diego
MS Cap San Diego is a general cargo ship, situated as a museum ship in Hamburg, Germany. Notable for its elegant silhouette, it was the last of a series of six ships known as the white swans of the south atlantic, and marked the apex of German-built bulk carriers before the advent of the container ship and the decline of Germany's heavy industry.
The Cap San Diego was built and launched by Deutsche Werft in 1961 for Hamburg Süd as the last of a series of six ships. The 159 m, 10000 dwt ship ran a regular schedule between Germany and South America, completing 120 round trips until 1981. After being sold and running under different names and flags of convenience as a tramp trader, the run-down ship was scheduled for scrapping in 1986, when it was bought by the city of Hamburg.
Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg
The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg (International Maritime Museum) is a private museum in the HafenCity quarter of Hamburg, Germany. The museum houses Peter Tamm's collection of model ships, construction plans, uniforms, and maritime art, amounting to over 40,000 items and more than one million photographs. It opened in a former warehouse in 2008.
The private collection was started in 1934 by Peter Tamm—former chairman of the board of the Axel Springer AG—when Tamm was six years old. As Tamm retold the history, the initial event was when his mother presented him his first model ship. Prior to the opening in the HafenCity, the collection was called "Wissenschaftliches Institut für Schifffahrts- und Marinegeschichte" (Academic Institute of Shipping and Naval History) and located in a mansion at the Elbchaussee street and only open by appointment. In 2004 the Hamburg Parliament approved a grant for a new museum in the HafenCity quarter unanimously, with an abstention from voting by the GAL party parliamentary group. On 25 June 2008, the museum was opened by the German president Horst Köhler.
Museum of Ethnology, Hamburg
The Museum of Ethnology, Hamburg (German: Museum für Völkerkunde Hamburg), founded in 1879, is today of the largest museums of ethnology in Europe. The approximately 350,000 objects in the collection are visited every year by about 180,000 visitors. It lies in the Rotherbaum quarter of the Eimsbüttel borough in Hamburg.
The museum originated as a small ethnographic collection of the city library, begun in 1849. This collection later became part of the Museum for Natural History in Hamburg, and in 1867 was opened to the public as "Die Ethnographische oder Sammlung für Völkerkunde im Anschluss an das Naturhistorische Museum in Hamburg". The collection, which at that time numbered 645 objects, was curated by Adolph Oberdörfer and Ferdinand Worlée. 1871 saw the renaming of the collection to "Culturhistorisches Museum", so that it progressed from the "Naturhistorisches Museum". On 29 April 1879 the "Museums für Völkerkunde" was founded. At first the businessman Carl W. Lüders led the museum in the position of provost until 1896. On 1 October 1904 Georg Thilenius took over the position of full time administrative director of the "Museums für Völkerkunde und Vorgeschichte".
Georg Thilenius strongly supported the building of a freestanding museum to house the collection. Once approved, the construction lasted between 1908 and 1912, with an expansion to house workspace completed in 1929.
The hamburgmuseum (or hm), also known as Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte ("Museum for Hamburg History"), is a history museum located in the city of Hamburg in northern Germany. The museum was established at its current location in 1922, although its parent organization was started in 1839. The museum was named hamburgmuseum in 2006. It is located near the Planten un Blomen park in the center of Hamburg.
Interior and contents
The museum has many artifacts preserved by the Society of Hamburg History founded in 1839. The Petri portal from Hamburg's St. Petri Church, built in 1604, was built into the museum courtyard in the 1990s.
Neuengamme concentration camp
The Neuengamme concentration camp, a German concentration camp, was established in 1938 by the SS near the village of Neuengamme in the Bergedorf district of the City of Hamburg, Germany. It was in Nazi operation from 1938 to 1945. By the end of the war, more than half of its estimated 106,000 prisoners had died. At the end of hostilities, the occupying British Army used it for a time as a detention centre for SS troops. After being operated as two prisons by the Hamburg authorities from 1948 to 2004, and a period of uncertainty, the site now serves as a memorial. It is situated 15 km southeast of the centre of Hamburg in the Vierlande area.
Rickmer Rickmers is a sailing ship (three masted bark) permanently moored as a museum ship in Hamburg, near the Cap San Diego.
Rickmer Clasen Rickmers, (1807–1886) was a Bremerhaven shipbuilder and Willi Rickmer Rickmers, (1873–1965) led a Soviet-German expedition to the Pamirs in 1928.
The Rickmer Rickmers was built in 1896 by the Rickmers shipyard in Bremerhaven, and was first used on the Hong Kong route carrying rice and bamboo. In 1912 she was bought by Carl Christian Krabbenhöft, renamed Max, and transferred to the Hamburg - Chile route.
In World War I the Max was captured by the Government of Portugal, in Horta (Azores) harbour and loaned to the United Kingdom as a war aid. For the remainder of the war the ship sailed under the Union Jack, as the Flores. After World War I she was returned to the Portuguese Government, becoming a Portuguese Navy training ship and was once more renamed, as NRP Sagres (the second of that name). In 1958, she won the Tall Ships' Race.
In the early 1960s the Sagres (II) was retired from school ship service when the Portuguese Navy purchased, from Brazil, the school ship Guanabara (originally launched in Germany in 1937 as the Albert Leo Schlageter and renamed NRP Sagres (III)), and was laid up in a shipyard. She was purchased in 1983 by an organisation named "Windjammer für Hamburg e.V.", renamed for the last time, back to Rickmer Rickmers, and turned into a floating museum ship.
SS Stettin (1933)
Stettin is a steam icebreaker built by the shipyard Stettiner Oderwerke in 1933. She was ordered by the Chamber of Commerce of Stettin (until 1945 Germany, since 1945 Szczecin, Poland). The economy of the city of Stettin strongly depended on the free access of ships to and from the Baltic Sea. Therefore, icebreakers were used to keep the shipping channels free from ice during the winter.
For the first time in Germany, the construction was characterized by a new bow design called Runeberg-bow. This new bow design broke the ice using a novel method. It was not broken by the weight of the ship but by a sharp cutting edge. Future development of icebreakers was influenced by this bow form.
Although diesel-engines were already in wide use by 1933, Stettin was equipped with a steam piston engine. Unlike diesel engines, steam piston engines can be reversed within a very short period of approximately 3 to 4 seconds. This was important during manoeuvres of the ship under icey conditions in order to liberate the ship if it were to get stuck. The icebreakers of Stettin were handled by the shipping company Braeunlich, which ran a seaside resort ferry service along the coast during the summer. Its other ships had similar engines, so a single technical staff could be employed year round. Stettin was run by a crew of 22 men. This system was in place until the end of World War II.
With the special hull design and an engine power with a maximum horsepower of 2200, measured at the cylinders, Stettin was able to break ice up to a thickness of half a meter, at a constant speed of one to two knots. Thicker ice could only be broken by boxing. Boxing was a process in which the ship ran several attacks until the ice gave way.
From 1933 to 1945, Stettin was used on the Oder River between Stettin and Swinemünde (Świnoujście), as well as on the Baltic Sea, in Kriegsmarine service. On the night of 8 April 1940, Stettin participated in the capture of Copenhagen by participating in a surprise landing of German troops in Copenhagen together with the railway ferry/minelayer Hansestadt Danzig. Stettin is also one of two or three surviving vessels of the east Prussia evacuation fleet. From 1945 on, she was used by the waterway and navigation authorities in Hamburg on the river Elbe.
In 1981, Stettin was slated to be scrapped due to uneconomic costs. With the establishment of a development association, thousands of working hours, and support by generous sponsors, the ship was saved. Today, she is a technical culture monument. Her homeport is the museum port of Oevelgoenne in Hamburg, Germany. During summertime, Stettin cruises with guests on occasions like "Hamburg port birthday," "Hansesail Rostock," and "Kieler Woche," and is also used as a charter vessel.
Ohlsdorf Cemetery (German: Friedhof Ohlsdorf or (former) Hauptfriedhof Ohlsdorf) in the quarter Ohlsdorf of the city of Hamburg, Germany, is the biggest non-military cemetery in the world and the second-largest cemetery in the world after Calverton National Cemetery in eastern Long Island.
The cemetery has an area of 391 hectares (966 acres) with 12 chapels, over 1.5 million burials in more than 280,000 burial sites and streets with a length of 17 km (11 mi). There are 4 entrances for vehicles and public transport is provided with 25 bus stops of two bus lines of the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund. The cemetery is not only used as a burial ground, but also as a recreational area and tourist attraction. With its impressive mausoleums, rhododendron bushes,its ponds and birds, sculptures and funerary museum, about two million people from all over the world visit the cemetery every year.
Hamburger Sternwarte (Hamburg Observatory) is an astronomical observatory located in the Bergedorf borough of the city of Hamburg in northern Germany. It is owned and operated by the University of Hamburg, Germany since 1968, although it was founded in 1825 by the City of Hamburg and moved to its present location in 1912. It has operated telescopes at Bergedorf, at two previous locations in Hamburg, at other observatories around the world, and it has also supported space missions.
at Stintfang (1802–1811)
The precursor of Hamburg observatory was a private observatory by Johann Georg Repsold built in 1802, originally located at the Stintfang in Hamburg. It started in 1803 with a meridian circle built by Repsold in 1808. However, it was destroyed in 1811 by a war. Repsold, Reinke, and J.C. von Hess submitted a proposal to Hamburg for city observatory that same year, to rebuild.
Built in 2000, the Hamburg Dungeon is a tourist attraction from a chain including the London Dungeon and York Dungeon. It is the first of this brand to be built in mainland Europe. It provides a journey through Hamburg’s dark history in an actor led, interactive experience.
The Torture Chamber show is based on the interrogation of those thought to be smuggling to defy the 18th century Napoleonic invasion. Visitors have to find their way through the terrible Great Fire of Hamburg that devastated much of Hamburg in 1842. A recreation of the streets of Plague ravaged Hamburg street, where the effect the killer disease had in the city in 1664 is animated. the Labyrinth of the Lost is a mirror maze. The visitor stands in an Inquisition court where they are accused of sins against God. The punishments are always harsh and the court is unforgiving as some of the darkest moments of the country’s history are played out. The story of the life of the infamous pirate Klaus Störtebeker, who used to plunder the Baltic and North Seas, is told via a brief video. Visitors are then taken on to a mock pirate ship to help fight in a nautical battle before witnessing the execution of the famous pirate. Hamburg used to be prone to terrible flooding (Sturmflut 1717), with one of the worst being on Christmas Day 1717. Visitors are taken on a boat ride which is designed to look like a small raft to take them through the carnage of the city and to safety. The graphic exhibition and show Cholera 1892 depicting the cholera epidemic, which wiped out over a third of the population of Hamburg.
Botanischer Garten Hamburg
The Botanischer Garten Hamburg (25 hectares), more formally known as the Botanischer Garten der Universität Hamburg and the Biozentrum Klein Flottbek und Botanischer Garten, is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Hamburg. It is located at Ohnhorststrasse 18, Hamburg, Germany, beside the Klein Flottbek station, and open daily without charge.
Although the garden's institutional history dates to its first establishment in 1821 and transfer in 1919 to the University of Hamburg, today's Botanischer Garten Hamburg opened in 1979. Its earlier site still remains as the Alter Botanischer Garten Hamburg, which contains the garden's greenhouses.
Hamburg State Opera
The Hamburg State Opera (in German: Hamburgische Staatsoper) is one of the leading opera companies in Germany.
Opera in Hamburg dates back to 2 January 1678 when the Oper am Gänsemarkt was inaugurated with a performance of a biblical Singspiel by Johann Theile. It was not a court theatre but the first public opera house in Germany established by the art-loving citizens of Hamburg, a prosperous member of the Hanseatic League.
The Hamburg Bürgeroper resisted the dominance of the Italianate style and rapidly became the leading musical center of the German Baroque. In 1703, George Friedrich Handel was engaged as violinist and harpsichordist and performances of his operas were not long in appearing. In 1705, Hamburg gave the world première of his opera Nero.
The Hamburg Bürgeroper resisted the dominance of the Italianate style and rapidly became the leading musical center of the German Baroque. In 1703, George Friedrich Handel was engaged as violinist and harpsichordist and performances of his operas were not long in appearing. In 1705, Hamburg gave the world première of his opera Nero.
To replace the aging wooden structure, the first stone was laid on 18 May 1826 for the Stadt-Theater on the present-day site of the Hamburg State Opera. The new theater, with seating for 2800, was inaugurated less than a year later with Beethoven's incidental music to Egmont.
Beatlemania Hamburg is a museum in Hamburg devoted to The Beatles.
The museum, which opened in May 2009, is conceived as a "Beatles experience". It is located in the St. Pauli district, near the Beatles-Platz and the Große Freiheit, location of the clubs in which the Beatles played during their formative Hamburg period in the early 1960s.
A large model of a Yellow Submarine hangs above the entrance. The museum itself spans five floors and contains 11 rooms, each with a different theme. The history of The Beatles from their Hamburg period to their break-up is displayed through a mixture of original exhibits, interactive features and fan memorabilia, as well as a reconstruction of the Große Freiheit street in 1960s style.
Elbe Philharmonic Hall
The Elbphilharmonie Hamburg is a concert hall under construction in the HafenCity quarter of Hamburg, Germany. The concert hall is designed by Herzog & de Meuron on top of an old warehouse (Kaispeicher A). It will be the tallest inhabited building of Hamburg.
On 2 April 2007 the First Mayor of Hamburg Ole von Beust, Henner Mahlstedt, Hochtief Construction AG, project coordinator Hartmut Wegener, Hamburg Minister of Culture Karin von Welck and architect Pierre de Meuron laid the foundation stone in the warehouse Kaispeicher A. In 2007, the construction was scheduled to be finished in 2010 with an estimated cost of €241 million.
In November 2008 as an endorsement to the original contract, the costs for the project were estimated at €450 million.
In August 2012 the cost were re-estimated to be over €500 million, which should also cover the increased cost for a strengthened roof. The date of completion has been moved to the summer of 2015 at the earliest.
The upper floors of the building will be occupied by "Westin Hamburg" hotel scheduled to open in 2014.
The Laeiszhalle (German pronunciation: [ˈlaɪsˌhalə], formerly Musikhalle Hamburg, English: Music hall Hamburg) is a concert hall in Hamburg, Germany and home to the Hamburger Symphoniker.
The hall is named after the German shipowning company F. Laeisz, founder of the concert venue and was planned by the architect Martin Haller.
The Rote Flora is a former theater in the neighbourhood Schanzenviertel in Hamburg. It has been squatted in November 1989 in response to the decision to turn it into a musical theatre.
History of the building
The theater was built 1888 and named Tivoli-Theater. Soon, it was renamed to Concerthaus Flora, and eventually became the Flora-Theater where concerts, operetta and revues were performed on stage. Being one of the few theaters which have not been damaged in World War II, the shows went on until 1943. During the last few years of the war, the theater was closed and used for storage, but soon opened after a renovation in 1949. From 1953 to 1964, the building was used as a cinema with around 800 seats; the department store 1000 Töpfe moved in afterwards and remained until 1987.
Miniatur Wunderland (German for miniature wonderland) is a model railway attraction in Hamburg, Germany and the largest of its kind in the world, built by the twins Gerrit and Frederik Braun. As of January 2011, the railway consists of 12,000 metres (39,370 ft) of track in HO scale, divided into seven sections: Harz, the fictitious city of Knuffingen, the Alps and Austria, Hamburg, America, Scandinavia, and Switzerland. Of the 6,400 square metres (68,889 sq ft) of floorspace, the model takes 1,150 m2 (12,378 sq ft).
By 2020, the exhibit is expected to have reached its final construction phase, including at least a total of ten new sections in a model area of over 2,300 m2 (24,757 sq ft). The next section covering an airport opened in May 2011. The exhibit includes 890 trains made up of over 11,000 carriages, 300,000 lights, 215,000 trees, and 200,000 human figurines. The creators will work on models of Italy and France now that the airport section is completed. The airport is named Knuffingen International Airport and is modeled after Hamburg International Airport. Possible future additions include Africa, England, or a futuristic landscape.
Thalia Theater (Hamburg)
The Thalia Theater is one of the three state-owned theatres in Hamburg, Germany. It was founded in 1843 by Charles Maurice Schwartzenberger and named after the muse Thalia. Today, it is home to one of Germany's most famous ensembles and stages around 9 new plays per season. Current theatre manager is Ulrich Khuon.
In addition to its main building, located in the street Raboisen in the quarter Hamburg-Alstadt near the Binnenalster in Hamburg's inner city, the theatre operates a smaller stage, used for experimental plays, the Thalia in der Gaußstraße, located in the borough of Altona.
The Deutsches Schauspielhaus is a theatre in the St. Georg quarter of the city of Hamburg, Germany. With a capacity for 1192 spectators, it places it as Germany's largest theatre. It was established in 1901 by the renowned stage actress Franziska Ellmenreich.
Marco Albrecht, Ingrid Andree, Maria Becker, Ortrud Beginnen, Ehmi Bessel, Christa Berndl, Josef Bierbichler, Charles Brauer, Marion Breckwoldt, Ella Büchi, Max Eckard, Franziska Ellmenreich, Judith Engel, Sebastian Fischer, Elisabeth Flickenschildt, Uwe Friedrichsen, Francis Fulton-Smith, Ute Hannig, Werner Hinz, Hanne Hiob, Jutta Hoffmann, Pola Kinski, Gustav Knuth, Felix Kramer, Werner Krauß, Richard Lauffen, Ruth Leuwerik, Erwin Linder, Susanne Lothar, Eduard Marks, Eva Mattes, Kyra Mladek, Magdalena Montezuma, Bernd Moss, Dietmar Mues, Ruth Niehaus, Joseph Offenbach, Michael Prelle, Tilo Prückner, Wiebke Puls, Will Quadflieg, Hans Quest, Heinz Reincke, Hermann Schomberg, Annemarie Schradiek, Jana Schulz, Monique Schwitter, Tristan Seith, Cathrin Striebeck, Solveig Thomas, Andreas Tobias, Daniel Wahl, Anne Weber, Laura de Weck, Antje Weisgerber, Ulrich Wildgruber, Maria Wimmer, Michael Wittenborn, Samuel Weiss, Rosel Zech.
New Apostolic Church
The New Apostolic Church (NAC) is a chiliastic church, converted to Protestantism as a free church from the Catholic Apostolic Church. The church has existed since 1879 in Germany and since 1897 in the Netherlands. It came about from the schism in Hamburg in 1863, when it demerged from the Catholic Apostolic Church, which itself started in the 1830s as a renewal movement in, among others, the Anglican Church and Church of Scotland.
Premillennialism and the Second Coming of Christ are at the forefront of the New Apostolic doctrines. Most of its doctrines are akin to mainstream Christianity and, especially its liturgy, to Protestantism, whereas its hierarchy and organisation could be compared with the Roman Catholic Church.
The church considers itself to be the re-established continuation of the Early Church and that its leaders are the successors of the twelve apostles. This doctrine resembles Restorationism in some aspects.
The official abbreviation in English-speaking countries is NAC (for New Apostolic Church), whereas it is NAK in German (Neuapostolische Kirche), ENA in French (Église Néo Apostolique), and INA in Portuguese (Igreja Nova Apostólica) and Spanish (Iglesia Nueva Apostólica).
Luna Park, Hamburg-Altona
Luna Park was a popular amusement park near Hamburg, Germany that was opened to the public in 1913, closed from 1914 to 1917 (due to World War I), and then reopened from 1917 to 1923. The only remaining reminders of the former "funland" are a children's playground and roads named "Lunapark" serving the former park site.
Planten un Blomen
Planten un Blomen is a park with a size of 47 hectares in the center of Hamburg. The name is Low German for plants and flowers.
The first plant was a Platanus, planted by Johann Georg Christian Lehmann in November 1821. It can be seen next to the Hamburg Dammtor railway station entrance of the park.
The park is famous for its water-light concerts, public theater and music performances. There is no entrance fee. In addition to the gardens, there is a large playground in the southern area of the park. This makes the park a popular place in the city. It contains the old botanical garden of Hamburg.
Wellingsbüttel Manor (German: Rittergut Wellingsbüttel, since Danish times: Kanzleigut Wellingsbüttel) is a former manor with a baroque manor house (German: Herrenhaus) in Hamburg, Germany, which once enjoyed imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit). Wellingsbüttel was documented for the first time on 10 October 1296. Since 1937 it has formed part of the suburbs of Hamburg as the heart of the quarter of the same name, Wellingsbüttel, in the borough of Wandsbek. The owners of Wellingsbüttel Manor from the beginning of the 15th until the early 19th century were consecutively the Archbishops of Bremen, Heinrich Rantzau, Dietrich von Reinking, the Barons von Kurtzrock, Frederick VI of Denmark, Hercules Roß, the Jauch family, Cäcilie Behrens and Otto Jonathan Hübbe. In the early 19th century it was the residence and place of death of His Serene Highness Friedrich Karl Ludwig, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck, the penultimate duke, who was an ancestor inter alia of the present-day British royal family. Wellingsbüttel Manor was elevated to the status of a Danish "chancellery manor" (Kanzleigut). It was then acquired by Grand Burgher of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg Johann Christian Jauch junior (1802–1880), becoming a country estate of the Jauch family. The manor house is together with Jenisch House (Jenisch-Haus) one of Hamburg's best conserved examples of the Hanseatic lifestyle in the 19th century and jointly with the manor gatehouse a listed historical monument. The estate is located on the banks of the Alster River in the middle of the Alster valley (Alstertal) nature reserve.
St. Catherine's Church, Hamburg
St. Catherine's Church (German: St. Katharinen) is one of the five principal Lutheran churches (Hauptkirchen) of Hamburg, Germany. The base of its spire, dating from the 13th century, is the second oldest building preserved in the city, after the lighthouse on Neuwerk island. It is situated on an island near what was formerly the southern boundary of the medieval city, opposite the historic harbour area on the Elbe river. It traditionally served as the church of the seamen.
The earliest attestation to the existence of the church dates back to 1256. The main body, consisting of a triple nave, was rebuilt during the mid-15th century in the north German Brick Gothic style. In 1657 a Baroque rooftop was added to the spire, which thus reached a height of 115 meters. The church was heavily damaged in an air-raid during World War II, on 30 July 1943. It left only the outer walls and the base of the spire standing. The building was restored between 1950 and 1957.
Famous pastors have included Joachim Westphal and Philipp Nicolai.
St. Nicholas' Church, Hamburg
The Gothic Revival Church of St. Nicholas (German: St.-Nikolai-Kirche) was formerly one of the five Lutheran Hauptkirchen (main churches) in the city of Hamburg. It is now in ruins, serving as a memorial and an important architectural landmark. When Hamburg residents mention the Nikolaikirche, it is generally to this church that they are referring, and not the new Hauptkirche of St. Nicholas, which is located in the Harvestehude district.
The church was the tallest building in the world from 1874 to 1876 and is still the second-tallest building in Hamburg.
St. Pauli (Sankt Pauli; German pronunciation: [ˌzaŋkt ˈpaʊli]), located in the Hamburg-Mitte borough, is one of the 105 quarters of the city of Hamburg, Germany. Situated on the right bank of the Elbe river, the Landungsbrücken are a northern part of the port of Hamburg. St. Pauli contains a world famous red light district around the street Reeperbahn. In 2006 the population was 27,612.
Culture and recreation
A prominent symbol is its football club, FC St. Pauli and the Millerntor-Stadion. The club played host to the inaugural FIFI Wild Cup in May–June 2006.
In 2010 the FC St. Pauli was one hundred years old. To the jubilee the Fan club 18auf12 had recorded a song: One Hundred Beers (Words and music by Henning Knorr & Christoph Brüx).
St. Pauli has a long tradition as a recreation and amusement centre. The big port of Hamburg led many sailors to Hamburg who preferably spent their spare time (as long as their ships were unloaded and loaded again) in this area. Since then there has been prostitution in St. Pauli, and it is still best known as Hamburg's red-light district. The red-light district is an area of a few streets around the street Reeperbahn often referred to as the Kiez.
Bars and music clubs have a tradition in the Kiez St. Pauli. The Beatles lived in St. Pauli and played at the Star-Club before becoming famous. Singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, providing the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, with "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins" ("On the Reeperbahn at half past midnight") from the movie Große Freiheit Nr. 7.
St. Peter's Church, Hamburg
St. Peter's Cathedral (German: Hauptkirche St. Petri, German coll.: Petrikirche) in Hamburg stands on the site of many former cathedrals. Built by order of Pope Leo X, it has been a Protestant cathedral since the Reformation and its congregation forms part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany.
The best known artworks in St Peter's are the lion-head door handles, located in the left wing of the west portal. However, the cathedral contains many additional works of art.
In the north portion of the cathedral, a Gothic mural from approximately 1460 shows the first bishop Ansgar of Bremen, with the words "Apostle of the North". A column in the choir area contains a statue by Bernt Notke, from around 1480-1483, showing Archbishop Ansgar and the Hamburg Marienkirche, which he founded.
From the 17th century, there are two oil paintings by Gottfried Libalt: Jacob's Dream and Christ's Birth. They were damaged by an acid attack in 1977, but were restored in October, 2001, and returned to the cathedral.
The painting Christmas 1813 in St. Peter's is on a column in the south part of the cathedral. It shows the Hamburg citizens who, when they did not provide food to Napoleon's occupying troops, were locked in the church by the soldiers. In the front of the cathedral are neo-Gothic representations of the evangelists. A modern bronze sculpture by Fritz Fleer shows Dietrich Bonhoeffer dressed as a convict with his hands bound.
Außenalster or Outer Alster Lake is one of two artificial lakes within the city limits of Hamburg, Germany, which are formed by the river Alster (the other being the Binnenalster). The size of the Außenalster is 1.6 km².
The phrase "outer" refers to the old city walls of Hamburg. The Außenalster was the part of the lake that was "outside" the city walls. Today the old city walls do not exist, instead two car and train bridges, the Lombardbrücke and the Kennedybrücke, span the river.
The Außenalster is used by the inhabitants of Hamburg for recreational purposes such as sailing and rowing. Almost all banks of the Außenalster are public. The banks vary from a small strip of green to large public parks (e.g. the Alstervorland). It is very popular to jog around the lake (approx. 7 km).
Binnenalster or Inner Alster Lake is one of two artificial lakes within the city limits of Hamburg, Germany, which are formed by the river Alster (the other being the Außenalster). The main annual festival is the Alstervergnügen.
The lake has an area of 0.2 square kilometres (2,200,000 sq ft).
The English Theatre of Hamburg
The English Theatre of Hamburg is a professional theatre in Hamburg, Germany where performances are held in English language. This private theatre was founded in 1976 by two Americans. It is the oldest theatre in Germany with performances in English language.
History of the Theatre
The theatre was founded in 1976 by two Americans, Robert Rumpf and Clifford Dean, who trained and worked professionally in the United States before coming to Hamburg in the mid-1970s. They share the general management responsibilities, plan the artistic program and direct the productions of the theatre.The company presented plays in many different locations in Hamburg until 1979 when a temporary home was found in Hamburg-Altona. Since 1981, "The English Theatre of Hamburg" has its headquarters in Lerchenfeld 14 in Mundsburg. The building was formerly the "Hammonia Bad", a swimming pool, and is a listed building since 19. November 1971.
The Tierpark Hagenbeck is a zoo in Stellingen, now a quarter in Hamburg, Germany. The collection began in 1863 with animals that belonged to Carl Hagenbeck Sr. (1810–87), a fishmonger who became an amateur animal collector. The park itself was founded by Carl Hagenbeck Jr. in 1907. It is known for being the first zoo to use open enclosures surrounded by moats, rather than barred cages, to better approximate animals' natural environments.
Museum für Kommunikation Hamburg
The Museum für Kommunikation Hamburg (museum of communication) is a museum related to telecommunication and postal service in Hamburg, Germany. The museum is owned by the Museumsstiftung Post und Telekommunikation (foundation for museums of postal service and telecommunication). It is closed to visitors since 19 October 2009.
The collection places emphasis on the difficulties of communication at sea, the museum participates in the Long Night of Museums.
Lauenburg/Elbe (About this sound listen) is a town in the state of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is situated at the northern bank of the river Elbe, east of Hamburg. It is the southernmost town of Schleswig-Holstein. Lauenburg belongs to the Kreis (district) of Herzogtum Lauenburg and had a population of 11,900 as of 2002. The town is also known in German as Lauenburg an der Elbe.
The town was founded in 1182 by Bernard of Ascania, the ancestor of the Dukes of Lauenburg. Between 1181 and 1182 he erected the Lowenborch, named after the Polabian name of Lave for the river Elbe (compare modern Czech Labe). Lowenborch became eponymous for the place.
Saxe-Lauenburg was a duchy until 1 July 1876, when it was incorporated into the Royal Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein. Lauenburg served as the ducal capital until 1616, when the castle burnt down. In 1619 the capital moved to Ratzeburg. The area of the duchy was roughly identical with that of today's district. In medieval times Lauenburg was a waypoint on the Old Salt Route, while today it is the southern terminus of the Elbe-Lübeck Canal.
Following the Napoleonic Wars, Lauenburg was ceded by Prussia to Denmark in exchange for the region of Pomerania.
Between 1945 and 1982 Lauenburg served as West German inner German border crossing for cars travelling along Bundesstraße 5 between the Soviet Zone of occupation in Germany (till 1949, thereafter the East German Democratic Republic, or West Berlin and the British zone of occupation (till 1949) and thereafter the West German Federal Republic of Germany. The traffic was subject to the Interzonal traffic regulations, that between West Germany and West Berlin followed the special regulations of the Transit Agreement (1972).
Jenisch House (Jenisch-Haus) is a country house in Hamburg built in the 19th century and an example of Hanseatic lifestyle and neoclassical architecture. As of 2008, Jenisch House is the home of the Museum für Kunst und Kultur an der Elbe.
The house was built by Franz Forsmann and Karl Schinkel for Martin Johann Jenisch between 1831 and 1834. Jenisch used it as a country house.
Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
The Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park (German: Hamburgisches Wattenmeer) is an exclave of the city state of Hamburg in North Germany and lies 12.5 km off Cuxhaven in the estuary of the Elbe in the North Sea (German Bight). This part of the Wadden Sea lies inside the area of the Lower Saxon Wadden Sea National Park and also includes the islands of Neuwerk, Scharhörn and Nigehörn. It is made up mainly of sand and mixed mudflats with shallow creeks, sand bars (Plaaten) and the aforementioned dune islands.
Since 1992 the national park has also been designated as a biosphere reserve, something which increases the importance of the park, because since then it has been placed under international protection in accordance with the UNESCO programme, "man and biosphere". The national park management is responsible for the care of the biosphere reserve and its national aspects.
What is your insider travel tip for Hamburg?
Travel Insider Tips for Hamburg
Hamburg is a major port city situated on the Elbe River in northern Germany. 1,740,000 inhabitants make it Germany's second-largest city. The Greater Hamburg Metropolitan Region has a population of four million. It is at the same time one of the 16 German Bundesländer (states).
Hamburg is a city-state. It values its status as a city, being as independent as possible of other states that have existed or currently exist in Germany. Nevertheless, over the centuries, Hamburg has always been an international city. This is not only because of its position in international trade, but also in political dimensions.
One of the most important harbors in Europe and the world, Hamburg takes great pride in its mercantile background, which built the city's wealth in the past centuries. From 1241 on, it was member of the Hanseatic League, a medieval trade monopoly over Northern Europe. In the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, millions left Europe on their way to the new world through the Hamburg harbor. Today, the harbor ranks second in Europe and sixth to seventh world-wide. Consequently, one of Hamburg's tag lines is
The Gate to the World (derived from the city's coat of arms, showing an argent city wall with a gate and crowned by three towers on a field of gules). Hamburg is known to be the richest metropolitan area in the European Union (just followed by Bruxelles and London).
The harbor is the heart of the city, however, Hamburg is one of the most important media hubs in Germany, too. Half of the nation's newspapers and magazines have their roots in Hamburg. And unknown even to some locals is the fact that, with one of the Airbus aircraft assembly plants, Hamburg is a major location of the world's aerospace industry, right after Seattle (USA) and Toulouse (France).
The mercantile background reflects in the city's architecture. The only palace in Hamburg is the town hall, house of the citizen's parliament and the senate. Apart from that, the city still has large quarters with expensive houses and villas. These residences are home to merchants and captains, surrounded by lots of greenery. However, large parts of the city were destroyed during the devastating air raids of World War II, killing tens of thousands and leaving more than a million homeless.
Hamburg still keeps its tradition of being an open, yet discreet city. Citizens of Hamburg, just like most Northern Germans, sometimes appear to be quite reserved at first. Once they get to know with whom they are dealing, they'll be as warm and friendly as you'd wish.
The people of Hamburg are known as
Hamburgers (pronounce the a like you're saying
ah, and it won't sound as silly). The beef patties on a bun were named after this city, where presumably they were invented (although not popularized: you won't find any
traditional hamburgers in Hamburg). See also
frankfurter (Frankfurt) and
wiener (Wien, aka Vienna).
Things to See in Hamburg
The area west of Hamburg's central railway station is mainly a shopping area with the streets Spitaler Straße and Mönckebergstraße, leading to Hamburg's town hall. Close to the Mönckebergstraße you find the churches St. Jacobi (at road Jakobikirchhof) and St. Petri (at road Bergstraße), two of Hamburg's five main churches. Directly beside St. Petri there is the Hubelhaus dating from the beginning of the 20th century as most buildings around, but looking much older.
Behind the Hubelhaus under the building of
Radio Hamburg, you can visit the remains of the bishops tower, from the 11th century. On the other side of the road, you can currently see excavations in progress, seeking the remains of the small fortress Hammaburg, which was erected in the 9th century giving Hamburg its name.
The Mönckebergstraße ends at Hamburg's impressive city hall (
Rathaus). It was built in 1897 out of sandstone in neo-Renaissance style, including a 112 m tower. Inside there are several magnificent halls used for representative purposes and sittings of government and parliament. These can be visited in guided tours (M-Th 10AM-3:15PM, F-Su 10AM-1:15PM, half-hourly in German, hourly in English and French. Closed during official events. Admission is € 2 for adults and € 0.50 for children).
The building behind the city hall is Hamburg's House of Commerce (
Börse). Between the buildings, there is a little place called Rathaushof with its fountain Hygieia-Brunnen. The place in front of the city hall is the Rathausmarkt, hosting many events especially in summer.
North of the Rathausmarkt, you find white arches at a canal called Alsterarkaden. The whole area behind is full of indoor shopping arcades. The most well-known one is the Hanse Viertel.
Following the canal to the right and crossing the traditional shopping road, Jungfernstieg, you quickly get to the artificial lake Binnenalster. Boat tours take you to the even bigger artificial lake, Außenalster, directly behind the Binnenalster with lots of sailing boats in summer.
From the House of Commerce into the road Börsenbrücke, you get to the house of the Patriotische Gesellschaft. Behind the building to the right, you'll find the bridge Trostbrücke with the statues of Graf Adolf III and Bishop Ansgar on both sides. Following the water to left, there is Hamburg's oldest remaining bridge, Zollenbrücke, from the 17th century.
At the other side of the Trostbrücke, there is the ruin of the church, St. Nikolai. All five main churches of Hamburg were damaged in World War II. But in contrast to the other four, St. Nikolai has not been re-erected making it a memorial against war. The steeple is still standing and visitors can take an elevator to the top for a view of the city. The price to take the elevator is € 3.5. At the side of St. Nikolai, there is the hop market (
Hopfenmarkt) with its fountain Vierländerinbrunnen.
Following the bridge over the huge street Willy-Brandt-Straße and keeping right takes you into the road
Alte Deichstraße with its ensemble of traditional half timbered merchant houses and the canal Nicolai Fleet at the rear. This is the site where Hamburg's harbour was some centuries ago.
At the southern end of the Alte Deichstraße, you see where the harbour moved after wards. There is a canal called Zollkanal. Looking to the left, you see the Speicherstadt, a large district of warehouses from around 1900. Some are still in use, but others have been converted to apartments. It's a "typical" location and worth a visit. It also houses attractions, such as the "Hamburg Dungeon" and the "Miniatur Wunderland".
- The Hamburg Dungeon is a live-action presentation of the "darker times" of Hamburg. It is probably mostly suited for a younger, easily impressed audience. But it might not be suitable for young children.
- The Miniatur Wunderland is the world's largest model railway layout. The panoramas include parts of Hamburg, the Alps, the American west, and a Scandinavian exhibit which features automated ships on a body of water. It is located in the Speicherstadt close to the Hamburg Dungeon.
- Behind the Speicherstadt is the area of Hamburg's HafenCity. It is Europe's largest project of city development, creating a whole new quarter from scratch in a former harbor region. The Kesselhaus also houses an exhibition (Am Sandtorkai 30, in the Speicherstadt, Open Tu-Su 10AM-6PM, free admission.
- The Hamburg Cruise Center, where cruise lines land in Hamburg, is in the HafenCity. Its terminal building is constructed out of 40 sea containers. Nearby, directly at the river Elbe, you find an orange observation tower called HafenCity View Point, allowing nice views on the HafenCity, the harbor, and the river (free admission).
Looking from Alte Deichstraße over the Zollkanal to the right, you can see the modern buildings belonging to the Hanseatic Trade Center ending to the right at the Kehrwiederspitze. Looking further right, you already see the modern harbor.
Walking in this direction takes you to the river, Elbe. At the opposite of the metro station
Baumwall, there's Hamburg's city and yacht harbor (
City und Sportboothafen). The big red lighthouse ship (
Feuerschiff) hosts a restaurant today. Some yards further down the Elbe, you get to the Überseebrücke where formerly big cruise liners docked when coming to Hamburg. Permanently docked is the museum ship Cap San Diego, which is said to be last classic cargo ship.
Leaving the water, passing by the hyper-modern building of the Gruner + Jahr publishers, you get to the church St. Michaelis (called
Michel, from the tower you'll have a great view over the city), Hamburg's well-known landmark. Close to the Michel off the road Krayenkamp the shopkeeper-office-flats (
Krameramtswohnungen) are the last example of a typical 17th century housing estate.
Continuing down the river Elbe, you get to Landungsbrücken (
landing bridges), the most touristy part of Hamburg's harbor, close to the metro station with the same name. Piers connected with several bridges swim on the water adapting to the tide. There tourism boats land and you will find tourist shops, restaurants, and snack bars. The sailing ship Rickmer Rickmers can be visited.
From Landungsbrücken, you can make boat tours into the harbour. These Hafenrundfahrten are available from various companies and take around an hour. Big ships provide more comfort, but smaller ships also go though the Speicherstadt. Both are well worth the money. Inquire about English language tours.
As a low-budget alternative for a boat tour on the river Elbe take a HADAG Ferry that is part of Hamburg's public transport system (HVV, see
Get Around). If you have already bought a HVV day ticket, the ride is free. Most tourists take the number 62 to Finkenwerder, via the museum harbour Övelgönne. The whole ride to Finkenwerder and return takes about an hour. In Finkenwerder, you can continue with another ferry to Teufelsbrück (Line 64 which is also part of the HVV).
You can also walk through the tunnel Alter Elbtunnel from 1911 to the other side of the river Elbe and have great views from there. A lift or stairs bring you the 24 meters down into the tunnel. You then walk through one of its two 427 meter long pipes having 12 meters of water over your head. The tunnel is decorated with ceramic arts of maritime motives (e.g. fish, mussels, seals, old boots). At the other side, you again walk up the stairs or take a lift. Go out and back to the river to
Aussichtspunkt Steinwerder for great views on Landungsbrücken and the sights behind. Even cars can pass though the tunnel (only M-F, 5:30AM-8PM for € 2) being brought down with four lifts. You find the tunnel at Landungsbrücken in the building having the biggest green dome. Signs to
Aussichtspunkt Steinwerder also point to it. For pedestrians and bicycles it is free and open all day and night, every day.
Another Hamburg landmark is the Reeperbahn in Sankt Pauli. It's probably one of the most famous red-light districts in the world. From variety to prostitutes, from bars to sex-shops, you can find an assortment of attractions. Plus, it is frequently visited by a lot of travelers to go shopping for a huge variety of sex-related articles and toys. This is probably one of very few places worldwide where all shopkeepers give you serious and open advice on all kinds of sex-related articles. Commonsense and caution are advised here, as in any such area. It's relatively safe and a definite touristy place to see. A lot of people go there for dinner, live music, or other non-sex related activities. It is worth pointing out however, that one is likely to be accosted by prostitutes offering
certain services for as little as € 30.
Three times a year (Mar, Aug, and Nov), there is an enormous fair in this part of down called Dom. It features rides, enormous numbers of food vendors, and a broad range of tacky animatronics. Take the U-Bahn to Feldstraße. In a park across the street is an enormous statue of Bismark.
Hafenstraße (Harbour street) is between Landungsbrücken, the most tourist crowded place in the city, and the fish market, which is open only on Sunday morning from 4:30AM-9:30AM. The street between was a place for squatters in the 1980s and was well known by the media when there were
battles between the Autonomous movement and the police. Some houses still exist there, though the
80s-Myth is dead. You can go to the Punksbar
onkel otto or eat at the
During the time of squatting, the well known football club
F.C. St.Pauli becomes an antifascist-fan-crowd, in opposition to right wing hooligans. The team played the last years in the third league, but was even one of the most popular teams in Germany. If you get the chance for a ticket of a match or you find a way over the fences around the stadium, don't miss the chance.
Sankt Pauli is one of the most populous district in Europe and a melting pot of all different people, thousands of stories and interesting histories.
This neighbourhood is situated right in between Sankt Pauli, Eimsbüttel, and Altona (Altona vacation rentals | Altona travel guide). Get out Sternschanze station and walk down Schanzenstraße southward to reach the vivid center of Schanzenviertel. Students and immigrants from all around the world and young creatives give this quarter a unique and urban flair. During the last few years, Schanzenviertel became very popular among even wealthy people. This lead to rising living costs on the one hand and a variety of exquisite boutiques on the other. The Schulterblatt street with the Rote Flora building and its galore of bars and restaurants represents the center of Schanzenviertel. The Rote Flora is the last squatted house in Hamburg. During the week, it is turned into a café. You can sometimes find fantastic parties for small prices on Friday and Saturday.
The street life in the neighborhood is changing, from hanging around in the "Schanzenpark" with playing drums and juggling to sitting in a café on the place so called
Piaza. It's losing its charm within a gentrification process, which will cost the city the name
Situated northeast of Central Station and city centre, Sankt Georg is the lively, trendy centre of Hamburg's gay scene. Rainbow flags flutter from the balconies in summer. The streets are crowded with people shopping, having a chat, drinking coffee, or going to one of the many art exhibitions around the Lange Reihe street.
The former Danish village Ottensen, bordered by the River Elbe in the south and the Altona Central Station in the east, is not unlike Schanzenviertel, a very hip place to live. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ottensen was mainly populated by Turks, working class people, and political activists. Nowadays, it is one of the most expensive neighbourhoods. Its situation and the architecture let many inhabitants even today speak of Ottensen as a village. The Fabrik, an alternative concert hall, is situated at Barnerstrasse. Only a few blocks away lies Zeisehallen, a formerly occupied fabric hall, nowadays home to a movie theatre, a gallery, a restaurant, and a bookshop. Ottenser Hauptstrasse and Bahrenfelder Strasse, crossing at the Spritzenplatz, offers a huge variety of small shops and bistros.
The Karolienenviertel (also known as Karoviertel) can be compared to the Schanzenviertel. Locals claim that the Schanzenviertel became too popular (and thus crowded). The Karoviertel is far from quiet, but populated by locals. The main attractions are unique clothing stores some of which are second hand. To get there take the HVV to either Feldstrasse
Blankenese was a fishing village on the Elbe to the southwest of Hamburg. It lies in a valley between two of the only ridges in the area that runs straight down to the river. On pretty weekends, the place will be full of Hamburgers there to enjoy the tiny beaches, the winding streets, and the charming houses. Blankenese is among the most picturesque parts of Hamburg.
To get there, take the S1 to Wedel or the S11 to Blankenese. The train station lies at the top of the valley, on Bahnhofstraße. Go straight across Bahnhofstraße and your will find the banks, an Italian gelateria and café, the market square (markets open early and close at 1PM on W, F, and Sa), the bakeries, grocery store, and post office.
Airport Hamburg-Fuhlsbüttel (IATA: HAM) (ICAO: EDDH)
Hamburg has the fourth largest international airport in Germany, so arrival by plane is an obvious choice for those visiting from far away.
Hamburg airport is closed at nighttime. Flights which have suffered severe delays will be diverted to Hannover (Hannover vacation rentals | Hannover travel guide), Frankfurt (Frankfurt vacation rentals | Frankfurt travel guide), or other German airports. It may, therefore, be prudent to avoid booking flights due to land late in the day. International flights are highly unlikely to be diverted as they are all scheduled to land well before the airport is closed for the night.
The airport, which is hugely popular with plane-spotters, is surrounded by Schrebergärten (meticulously maintained allotments), park lands, and open green spaces, crisscrossed by bicycle and walking trails. The popularity of this area is not only due to the many viewpoints, but also because Lufthansa Technik (Lufthansa's maintenance service) operates some large hangars on the airport, which means that the site is visited by a variety of rare and interesting aircraft (including VVIP).
The airport has been thoroughly modernized with a new terminal, streamlined infrastructure, and facilities that are by and large adequate, so you won't get lost. Depending on the gate your flight arrives at or leaves from, walking longer distances can be a problem.
Hamburg Airport is now connected to the city by the S-Bahn S1 commuter train line, which connects to the main station (Hauptbahnhof) and the city center in about 30 minutes. There are trains every 10-20 minutes, and a single fare is € 2,70. Beware on the way back: the train splits in two at Ohlsdorf, with only the front half (carriages 1-3) going to the airport, and the rest going to the suburb of Poppenbüttel. There are no trains between midnight and 4 AM, but a bus runs along the same route.
Lübeck-Blankensee (IATA: LBC) (ICAO: EDHL)
As with many other destinations, the discount airline Ryan Air does not operate from Hamburg, as their naming scheme might indicate. Instead, it operates from Lübeck-Blankensee airport (not to confuse with Hamburg's suburb Blankenese), which is 65 km from Hamburg via motorway A1. The second airline that offers flights to Lübeck (Lübeck vacation rentals | Lübeck travel guide) is Wizz Air . Flights go to London Stansted (England), Shannon and Dublin (Ireland), Glasgow Prestwick (Scotland), Stockholm Skavsta (Sweden), Milan Bergamo (Italy), Pisa (Italy), and Gdansk (Poland).
Buses connecting to the flights go from Hamburg's central bus station (
ZOB, adjacent to the main train station). They cost € 8 and take about one hour and 10 minutes. The buses depart about two hours and 50 minutes before every Ryanair departure, meet every arrival, and wait for delayed flights. Timetable is available on the bus company VHH's website.
Hamburg-Finkenwerder Airport (IATA: XFW) (ICAO: EDHI)
XFW airport in the suburb of Finkenwerder is actually not an airport in its usual meaning, but part of Airbus' Finkenwerder aircraft plant and thus only accessible to Airbus employees. For them, two daily flights are available to/from Toulouse, but most of the time the runway is used for freight (either plane parts (up to complete sections of passenger planes using the Beluga aircraft or the delivery of new planes).
The runway, as well as the aircraft parking lot, can be observed from the public street Neß-Hauptdeich (bus 150, stop Neuenfelde, Rosengarten (Rosengarten vacation rentals | Rosengarten travel guide), follows stop Airbus), tours of the Finkenwerder plant are available exclusively via Globetrotter (ca. two hours, € 13, reservation required three to four weeks in advance).
As the airport is located near the city center, it might be the quickest way to reach Hamburg. Airbus Finkenwerder is accessible by harbor ferries (nr. 68, leaving from Teufelsbrück) and buses (nr. 150, stop: Airbus).
Hamburg-Uetersen Airport (ICAO: EDHE)
Air Hamburg serves several German islands from this airport. The only way to reach it is by taxi, the nearest railway station being Tornesch.
Hamburg has five major stations: Hauptbahnhof (central station), Altona, Dammtor, Harburg, Bergedorf. Various types of train service are available.
- ICE (Inter City Express) high speed train service to or from most major German cities, including Berlin (Berlin vacation rentals | Berlin travel guide), Cologne (Cologne vacation rentals | Cologne travel guide) (Köln), Dusseldorf, Frankfurt, Munich (Munich vacation rentals | Munich travel guide) also to Basel and Zurich (Zürich) Switzerland. There are usually hourly service to most destinations during the daytime.
- Direct service to or from Copenhagen (Denmark), Budapest (Hungary), Prague (Czech Republic), Vienna (Austria), and Bratislava (Slovakia).
Use the German railway's online trip planner to find connections to/from Hamburg and buy tickets.
via the Autobahn:
- A1 to/from Lübeck (north-east) - To get to the city change to the A24 at
- A1 to/from Bremen (Bremen vacation rentals | Bremen travel guide), Cologne (Köln) (south/south-west) - To get to the city change to A255.
- A7 to/from Flensburg (Flensburg vacation rentals | Flensburg travel guide), Kiel (Kiel vacation rentals | Kiel travel guide) (north) - To get to the city exit at
- A7 to/from Hanover, Kassel (Kassel vacation rentals | Kassel travel guide) (south) - To get to the city exit right after the
Elbtunnelat "Othmarschen" or "Bahrenfeld". Use the rightmost pipe of the
Elbtunnelto exit at
- A23 to/from Husum (Husum vacation rentals | Husum travel guide).
- A24 to/from Berlin.
Be prepared to pay for parking or park outside the city and use public transportation.
Buses serving other cities (regional, national, and European destinations) arrive at or depart from Hamburg's central bus station (
ZOB), which is located near the central railway station (Hauptbahnhof) (two minute walk). Destinations include Berlin (several times a day).
Buses to Lübeck depart from Wandsbek.
You can leave Hamburg to the south (A7-Hannover/Frankfurt/Munich) and southwest (A1-Bremen/Cologne/Netherlands) from the filling station known as
HH-Stillhorn you can get there with the Bus 13 from suburbanstation S-Wilhelmsburg.
To Berlin you can start at the
Horner-Kreisel and take the Bus 161 from S-Berliner Tor or walk from U3-Rauhes Haus.
You can find cars driving to most German cities for € 10-20.
Hamburg has a well developed public transportation system. Buses go around the clock. At night, a special
Nachtbus (night bus) service connects the outlying districts and the city center. The buses depart and arrive at
Rathausmarkt, near the town hall and operate all through the night. Intracity train service runs until approximately 5AM and 1AM in the central city, but there is often not service past 11PM in outlying districts. On weekends, it runs all night. See HVV - Hamburger Verkehrsverbund for lines and prices.
Vending machines in the rail stations (and at some bus stops) sell short distance, single ride, and day tickets. Group tickets are also available. On the buses, the driver will sell you what you need. To buy week or longer tickets, go to Hauptbanhof, get passport photos in the automated photo booth, and buy your pass in the information office. Or you can buy a Hamburg Card, which includes the public transport system, museums, and other things.
Hamburg's public transit operates on the honor system. Red vested officials make spot checks, but aside from this you simply get on and off as you wish with no turnstiles or gates. The exception is late evening (after 9PM) and Sundays on the buses, when the driver must check passengers' tickets.
Try to avoid rush-hour before 9AM and between 4-7PM. You are not allowed to take bikes into subways before 9AM and between 4-6PM, unless it is a folding bike model like a Dahon, Brompton, Bike Friday, etc... Folders are allowed on Hamburg public transit at any time of the day.
Six ferry services operate in the harbor and along the River Elbe as part of the regular public transport system. (Tip: Take ferry line 64 from Landungsbrücken to Finkenwerder and back to enjoy a scenic trip through the harbor on a day ticket.)
On the two Alster lakes, a ferry boat travels once every hour from Jungfernstieg in the city center to Winterhuder Fährhaus. These boats are not in the general HVV ticket system, thus more expensive, however, they offer a splendid view to some of the wealthiest neighborhoods of Hamburg.
There is a good availability of taxis in Hamburg throughout the entire day, both at taxi stands and in the streets. You can identify a taxi rank by a green box on a post somewhat like an over-sized parking meter or alarm post. You will have to wait there or phone one of the numbers below, since the boxes can NOT be used to call a cab. Almost all vehicles are still in the traditional ivory white color, but even if not, a yellow and black sign on the roof reading
Taxi indicates a licensed cab. As usual, the sign is switched on to indicate vacancies. The meter starts at € 2.20. A trip in the city area will be between € 6-12. For a trip from the city to the airport, expect to pay between € 20-25. Most taxis accept credit card payments.
Hamburg has six S-Bahn (suburban) lines and three U-Bahn (subway) lines, which will be joined by the U4 in 2012. This line will provide a much needed link between Jungfernstieg (i.e the city center) and the new developments in the Hafencity. All lines run partly over and underground, in the city, and in the outskirts. The only difference is that these are two companies and even this doesn't matter due to the unified fare system.
All train platforms have signs showing the next train, where it is headed, and how many minutes until it arrives. Trains are described by a number and the final station. Note that the final station may vary. For example, half of the S1 trains heading west go all the way to Wedel, but the other half only go as far as Blankenese. Also, all S-Bahn trains with one-digit numbers go via Landungsbrücken and Jungfernstieg and all S-Bahn trains with two-digit numbers go via Dammtor.
Note that train doors don't open automatically. You have to press a button or pull a handle on the door. Please wait for the passengers to get off first before you enter. In the cold seasons, don't forget to close the door after getting on the train if it looks like a longer stop. Either push the handle or press the closing buttons on the inside until the door is closed.
Since December 12, 2008 a new connection between Hamburg Airport and Ohlsdorf (S1 & U2 line) has opened making connection to the city much easier. The fare from Hamburg Airport to the city center is around 2.70 €.
[ source: Wikitravel ]
More about the History of Hamburg
The city takes its name from the first permanent building on the site, a castle ordered to be built by Emperor Charlemagne in 808 AD. The castle was built on rocky ground in a marsh between the Alster and the Elbe as a defense against Slavic incursion. The castle was named Hammaburg, where burg means castle. The Hamma element remains uncertain, as does the location of this castle.
In 834, Hamburg was designated the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric, whose first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. In 1529, the city embraced Lutheranism, and Hamburg subsequently received Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France, and, in the 17th century, sephardi Jews from Portugal.
Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, a fleet of 600 Viking ships came up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, the city was burned down by King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland. Valdemar II of Denmark raided and occupied Hamburg in 1201 and in 1214. Hamburg had several great fires, the most notable ones in 1284 and 1842. In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". This fire started on the night of the 4 May 1842 and was extinguished on May 8. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killed 51 people, and left an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years. Hamburg was briefly annexed by Napoleon I (1810 - 14). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. During World War II Hamburg suffered a series of air raids, which killed 42,000 civilians. On February 16, 1962 a severe storm caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people.
The charter in 1189 by Frederick I
Barbarossa granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. In 1265, a putative forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. On November 8, 1266 a contract between Henry III and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history the word hanse was mentioned for the trading guild Hanseatic League. The first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in German language, the Ordeelbook (Ordeel: sentence) was written by the solicitor of the senate Jordan von Boitzenburg in 1270. On August 10, 1410 civil commotion caused a compromise (German:Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal). It is the considered as the first constitution of Hamburg. In 1860, the state of Hamburg established a republican constitution. Hamburg was an independent state of the German Confederation (1815-66), the North German Confederation (1866-71), the German Empire (1871-1918) and during the period of the Weimar Republic (1919-33). In Nazi Germany Hamburg was a Gau from 1934 until 1945. After the Second World War, Hamburg was in the British Zone of Occupation and became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949.
During the first half of the 19th century, a patron goddess with Hamburg's Latin name Hammonia emerged, mostly in romantic and poetic references, and although she has no mythology to call her own, Hammonia became the symbol of the city's spirit during this time. Hamburg experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's third-largest port. With Albert Ballin as its director, the Hamburg-America Line became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company at the turn of the century, and Hamburg was also home to shipping companies to South America, Africa, India and East Asia. Hamburg was the port for most Germans and Eastern Europeans to leave for the New World and became home to trading communities from all over the world.
Allied bombing as an effort to end Second World War led to civilian casualties, a devastated city as well as destroyed harbor areas. Hamburg surrendered without further casualties to British Forces on April, 3 1945. Almost 70,000 persons were murdered in the Hamburg-Neuengamme concentration camp.
The inner German border - only 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of Hamburg - separated the city from most of its hinterland and further reduced Hamburg's global trade. After German reunification in 1990, and the accession of some Eastern European and Baltic States into the EU in 2004, Hamburg Harbor and Hamburg have ambitions for regaining their positions as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading center.
[ source: Wikipedia ]
Hamburg is a major port city situated on the Elbe River in northern Germany. It is Germany's second-largest city with 1,740,000 inhabitants. Hamburg has always been an international city, and has been called "The Gate to the World." Hamburg is one of the most important media hubs in Germany. Half of the nation's newspapers and magazines have their roots in Hamburg. The city offers a large variety of entertainment and cultural activities. A few key points of interest in Hamburg include the Mönckebergstraße, one of the main retail streets, and Hamburg's impressive city hall ("Rathaus"), built in 1897 out of sandstone in the neo-Renaissance style. The Hamburg Dungeon is a live-action presentation of the "darker times" of Hamburg. The city is home to the Miniatur Wunderland, the world's largest model railway layout. Landungsbrücken is the most touristy part of Hamburg's harbor. And while there are a number of activities you can do on the water, you can also walk under the Elbe River through the Alter Elbtunnel.
Where to stay in Hamburg?
Check out our selection of hand-selected and quality Hamburg vacation rentals and holiday apartments.