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Popular Points of Interest in and near Weimar
The Bauhaus-Museum is a museum dedicated to the architectural style of Bauhaus. Since 1995 it has been housed in a former coach house on Theaterplatz rebuilt by Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray. This is only a temporary home (it is to move to a new site in 2014) and includes ruins of the Weimarer Zeughaus or arsenal. A new Bauhaus Museum is scheduled to open in 2015.
It displays about 250 works by teachers and students of the Bauhaus school, including seminal works by Walter Gropius, Johannes Itten, Lyonel Feininger and Marcel Breuer, along with several works from the movement's precursor, the 1907 Henry van de Velde School.
Duchess Anna Amalia Library
The Duchess Anna Amalia Library (German: Herzogin Anna Amalia Bibliothek) in Weimar, Thuringia, Germany, houses a major collection of German literature and historical documents.
The research library today has approximately 850,000 volumes with collection emphasis on the German literature. Among its special collections is an important Shakespeare collection of approximately 10,000 volumes, as well as a 16th century Bible connected to Martin Luther.
Library of Friedrich Nietzsche
The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche owned an extensive private library, which has been preserved after his death. Today this library consists of some 1,100 volumes, of which about 170 contain annotations by him, many of them substantial. However, fewer than half of the books he read are found in his library.
Nietzsche, who had been a student and a professor of philology, had a thorough knowledge of the Greek philosophers. Among modern philosophers, his reading included Kant, Mill and Schopenhauer, who became major targets of criticism in his philosophy. He also mentions reading Hegel at the age of twenty. Late in life he read Spinoza, whom he called his "precursor", in particular for his criticisms of free will, teleology and his thoughts on the role of affects, joy and sadness. Nietzsche, however, opposed Spinoza's theory of conatus, for which he substituted the "will to power" (Wille zur Macht); and he replaced Spinoza's formula "Deus sive Naturae" (God or Nature) by "Chaos sive Naturae". Nietzsche also admired the French moralists of the 17th century such as La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyère and Vauvenargues, whose books he received from his sister in 1869. He also admired Pascal and, most of all, Stendhal. He also read Eduard von Hartmann's "Philosophy of the Unconscious", and alludes to it in some of his works.
Nietzsche read in 1883 Paul Bourget's Essais de psychologie contemporaine, from which he borrowed the French term décadence. Bourget had an organicist conception of society. Nietzsche had already encountered organicist theories in Rudolf Virchow's Die Cellularpathologie (1858) and in Alfred Espinas's Des sociétés animales (1887; Die thierischen Gesellschaften, Braunschweig, 1879).
Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald, IPA: [ˈbuːxənvalt] (eng: Beechwood forest)) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg (Etter Mountain) near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil.
Camp prisoners from all over Europe and the Soviet Union—Jews, non-Jewish Poles and Slovenes, religious and political prisoners, Roma and Sinti, Freemasons, Jehovah's Witnesses, criminals, homosexuals, and prisoners of war— worked primarily as forced labor in local armament factories. From 1945 to 1950, the camp was used by the Soviet occupation authorities as an internment camp, known as NKVD special camp number 2.
Today the remains of Buchenwald serves as a memorial and permanent exhibition and museum.
Bauhaus sites in Weimar
Between 1919 and 1933, the Bauhaus School, based first in Weimar and then in Dessau, revolutionized architectural and aesthetic concepts and practices. The buildings put up and decorated by the school's professors (Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Wassily Kandinsky) launched the Modern Movement, which shaped much of the architecture of the 20th century.
In December of 1996 the Bauhaus Sites in Weimar and Dessau were included as part of the World Heritage Sites by UNESCO on the grounds that the Bauhaus buildings in Weimar and Dessau represent the so calles
Bauhaus Schoolof architecture, which introduced revolutionary ideas of archtitecture, building and town planning between 1919 and 1933. The buildings by various Bauhaus professors - like Walter Gropius, Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Wassily Kandinsky - established the Bauhaus Style, which decisively shaped the architecture of the 20th century. The Bauhaus in Weimar is represented by the former Grand Duke's Saxon School of Fine Arts, the Grand Duke's Saxon School of Arts and Crafts and the
Haus am Horn.
Classical Weimar UNESCO World Heritage Site
The World Heritage Committee designated the ensemble of buildings from the
Classical Weimarperiod as being one of UNESCO's Wolrd Heritage Sites at its 24th session in Kyoto, Japan in 1998. The Weimar Classic age coincided with the peak of German national literature (circa 1800). The Weimar Classic period ran from 1775-1832, which was when Goethe lived and worked in this small town. Apart from Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, Christoph Martin Wieland and Johann Gottfried Herder also contributed to the Weimar Classic period. It could only developed in an intellectual cultural atmosphere created by Duchess Anna Amalia and further encouraged by Duke Carl August. Important European ideas of literary criticism, art theory, aesthetics and teaching evolved in Weimar in that time.
The World Heritage Site of classical Weimar contains: Goethe's Home at the Frauenplan, Schiller's Home, The Widow Palace, The Town Church St.Peter and Paul, The Residential Palace, the Duchess Anna Amalia Library, the Ducal Vault and Historic Cemetery, the Park on the river Ilm with its Roman House, Goethe's Garden House, the Tiefurt Palace and Park, the Belvedere Palace and Orangery and its Park, and the Ettersburg Palace and Park.
For more information visit the Weimer Tourism Bureau
Schloss Belvedere, Weimar
The Baroque Schloss Belvedere, Weimar on the outskirts of Weimar, is a pleasure-house (Lustschloss) built for house-parties, built in 1724-1732 to designs of Johann August Richter and Gottfried Heinrich Krohne for Ernst August, Duke of Saxe-Weimar. The corps de logis is flanked by symmetrical pavilions. Today it houses part of the art collections of Weimar, with porcelains and faience, furniture and paintings of the eighteenth century.
As the summer residence, its gardens, laid out in the French style in 1728-1748, were an essential amenity. A wing of the Orangery in the Schlosspark contains a collection of historical carriages.
After 1811, much of the outer gardens was altered to conform to the English landscape garden style, as an Englischer Garten, for Grand Duke Carl Friedrich, who died at Belvedere in 1853. The enriched collection of exotic plants was published as Hortus Belvedereanus in 1820.
Tiefurt House (German: Schloss Tiefurt) is a small stately home on the Ilm in the Tiefurt quarter of Weimar, about 4km east of the city centre. It was the summer residence of duchess Anna Amalia of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel.
The house originated at the end of the 16th century as the tenant's house (Pächterhaus) of a ducal estate (Kammergut), and was converted and extended in 1765. It consists of a main building, with an upper floor of 7 rooms, and a smaller auxiliary building connected to it. Charles Augustus granted it to his brother Constantine for his own court, under Constantine's tutor Karl Ludwig von Knebel in 1776. Four years later their mother selected it as her summer seat during a long absence of the prince. She and her two servants occupied the upper floor, with her courtier, Luise von Göchhausen, in the auxiliary building. For around 25 years the castle was Anna Amalia's favourite residence and the centre of a circle of poets, as part of Weimar Classicism.
On the duchess's death in 1807 the building became neglected, though Charles Augustus's son Charles Frederick began renovation work within Goethe's lifetime. In 1907 it opened to the public as a museum, and from 1978 to 1981 it was restored to its 1800 decor, with the sequence of rooms restored to that of Anna Amalia's time.
What is your insider travel tip for Weimar?
Travel Insider Tips for Weimar
Here, you feel as grand and free as the wondrióus nature before your eyes - Goethe's words still ring true today and are a perfect description of what awaits visitors in and around Weimar. With beautiful scenery including seven country parks and numerous historical gardens - many of which are included on the UNESCO World Heritage list - it's no surprise that Weimar's theme in this year is
the city of parks and gardens. The National Goethe Museum is the most important monument to the classical period. But the town has plenty more museums to visit – more than 40, in fact! They include the Bauhaus Museum, the Museum of Prehistory and Early History, and even the German Bee Museum! The magnificent Town Castle, the exquisite summer residence in Belvedere, or Tiefurt Palace, altogether a much simpler affair: the dukes had some beautiful summer residences built in and around Weimar – every one a gem.
Things to See in Weimar
Goethe's Home-This Citizen's House was built in 1709 in the Baroque style. Goethe lived there from 1782 to 1789 as a tenant, then from 1792 to 1832 as the owner. The poet planned the form and furnishing of the rooms as well as its rich collections, e.g. in the Juno Room.
Duchess Anna Amalia Library-Anna Amalia had the ‘Green Palace’ turned into a library comprising a unique combination of books, an art collection and architecture. The Rococo Hall is especially famous. After the library was hit by a devastating fire in September 2004, it was reopened in December 2007 as the jewel of Weimar's museums.
Schiller House-Friedrich Schiller spent the last three years of his life in this townhouse on the former Weimar Esplanade. Still containing part of the original furnishings, it reflects the style prevalent in Schiller’s day
Goethe’s Summerhouse-Bought for Goethe by the Duke, the poet lived here until moving to the house on Frauenplan. A place of refuge for Goethe, after his death it became a shrine for his admirers.
Belvedere Palace-Laid out in Duke Ernst August’s day in strict French style, in the late eighteenth century the gardens were transformed along the lines of the English landscape approach and many of the original buildings were demolished. Those which have been preserved are the cavaliers’ houses, the orangery along with the gardener’s house, and the inn. The palace contains an exquisite collection of arts and crafts, including precious porcelain, faïence, glasses and select furniture.
Ettersburg Palace-The Ettersburg Palace complex consists of the old palace itself, the adjacent church, and the new palace in front, and was originally used as Anna Amalia’s summer residence. During this time, a literary and artistic circle met here, to which Wieland, Goethe or Herder belonged, among others.
[ source: wikipedia ]
More about the History of Weimar
Weimar is one of the great cultural sites of Europe, having been home to such luminaries as Goethe, Schiller, and Herder; and in music the piano virtuosi Hummel (a pupil of Mozart), Liszt and Bach. It has been a site of pilgrimage for the German intelligentsia since Goethe first moved to Weimar in the late 18th century. The tombs of Goethe and Schiller as well as their archives, may be found in the city. Goethe's Elective Affinities (1809) is set around the city of Weimar. On September 3, 2004, a fire broke out at the Duchess Anna Amalia Library. The library contains a 13,000-volume collection including Goethe's masterpiece Faust, in addition to a music collection of the Duchess. An authentic Lutheran Bible from 1534 was saved from the fire. The damage stretched into the millions of dollars. The number of books in this historic library exceeded 1,000,000, of which 40,000 to 50,000 were destroyed past recovery. The library, which dates back to 1691, belongs to UNESCO world heritage, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe. The fire, with its destruction of much historical literature, amounts to a huge cultural loss for Germany, Europe, and indeed the world. A number of books were shock-frozen in the city of Leipzig to save them from rotting.
[ source: wikipedia ]
Although Thuringia may not be on the itinerary of most American tourists, this state offers an array of very interesting cities, not the least of which is the small city of Weimar. Weimar's fame is warranted on various counts, including the fact that it was the center of the German Enlightenment and was the home of two of Germany's most prominent literary figures, Goethe and Schiller. During the 1800s and 1900s, an array of avant garde artists and composers settled in Weimar, including Franz Liszt, Wassily Kandinsky, and Walter Gropius, who first established the Bauhaus here. Lastly, the Weimar Republic was founded in Weimar, which was the site of the signing of Germany's first democratic constitution in 1918. Today, Weimar is home to numerous UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Bauhaus University. The sites to see here are almost too many to list: German National Theater, Goethe National Museum, Schiller Museum, Nietzsche Archives, Duchess Anna Amalia Library (which has a major Shakespeare collection and the world's largest Faust collection), Liszt House, Bauhaus Museum, Buchenwald Concentration Camp Memorial, Park an der Ilm (a UNESCO site), the German Bee Museum, and the Gauforum at Weimarplatz (the only realized Nazi government district outside of Berlin). It is easy to catch a train from Weimar and reach other rich cultural cities, including Leipzig (50 miles) and Erfurt (only 15 minutes by train).
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